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      Impact of Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance on Cardiac Structure and Function : Sex-Related Differences in the Framingham Heart Study

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          Abstract

          Although insulin resistance has been implicated in the pathogenesis of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, previous studies have yielded inconsistent results and are limited by referral bias. We examined the relations between echocardiographic LV measurements and glucose tolerance status in 2623 Framingham Study subjects (1514 women, mean age 53 years) free of myocardial infarction and heart failure. We also evaluated the relations of insulin resistance (homeostasis model, HOMA-IR) and LV and left atrial (LA) measures within the normal and abnormal glucose tolerance categories (the latter included impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, and newly diagnosed diabetes). LV mass (adjusted for age, height, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure) increased across categories of worsening glucose tolerance; the trend was more striking in women (P<0.001) compared with men (P=0.054). In subjects with normal (n=2022) and abnormal glucose tolerance (n=327), covariate-adjusted LV mass and LV wall thickness increased across HOMA-IR quartiles in women (P<0.001) but not men. In contrast, covariate-adjusted LA size increased with worsening glucose tolerance and across HOMA-IR quartiles in the normal and abnormal glucose tolerance groups in both sexes. Adjustment for body mass index considerably attenuated the relations of LV/LA measures and HOMA-IR, rendering them statistically nonsignificant in the normal glucose tolerance group. In our large community-based sample, LV mass and wall thickness increased with worsening glucose intolerance, an effect that was more striking in women compared with men. Insulin resistance was associated with increased LV mass in women alone, but this relation was largely accounted for by obesity.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Homeostasis model assessment closely mirrors the glucose clamp technique in the assessment of insulin sensitivity: studies in subjects with various degrees of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity

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            Echocardiographic evidence for the existence of a distinct diabetic cardiomyopathy (the Framingham Heart Study).

            Although several reports have described early changes of cardiac structure and function in diabetic patients, controversy persists regarding the existence of a clinically distinct diabetic cardiomyopathy. To this end, sex-specific linear regression analyses were used to examine the contribution of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance to age-adjusted echocardiographic parameters in 1,986 men (mean age 48 years) and 2,529 women (mean age 50 years) from the original Framingham Study cohort and the Framingham Offspring Study. Subjects with evidence of cardiovascular disease at the time of echocardiogram were excluded. Diabetics had higher heart rates than nondiabetics (67.9 vs 64.0 beats/min (p = 0.002) in men, and 73.1 vs 68.3 beats/min (p = 0.004) in women). Diabetic women had increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness (18.7 vs 17.1 mm, p less than 0.001), relative wall thickness (0.403 vs 0.377, p = 0.008), LV end-diastolic dimension (46.9 vs 45.7 mm, p = 0.03) and LV mass corrected for height (100.4 vs 82.2 g/m, p less than 0.001). Women with glucose intolerance showed similar, less significant trends (p = 0.007 for wall thickness, p less than 0.01 for LV mass). In diabetic men, fractional shortening was slightly reduced (0.355 vs 0.360, p less than 0.05). In a multivariate model that included potentially confounding factors, diabetes remained an independent contributor to LV mass (p = 0.004) and wall thickness (p = 0.008) in women. In a separate linear regression model, which assessed the association of age with LV mass, the age-coefficient for diabetic women was much higher than that for nondiabetics (13.6 vs 6.6 g/m per 10-year increment in age).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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              Relation of obesity and gender to left ventricular hypertrophy in normotensive and hypertensive adults.

              Although it is recognized that both hypertension and obesity are associated with increased left ventricular mass, the relative impacts of obesity, arterial hypertension, and gender on the prevalence of ventricular hypertrophy remain uncertain. Accordingly, echocardiographic left ventricular mass normalized for height to the power of the allometric or growth relation between ventricular mass and height was compared in 164 normotensive subjects (85 men [24 obese] and 79 women [28 obese], aged 45 +/- 12 years) and 475 hypertensive patients (325 men [126 obese] and 150 women [85 obese], aged 54 +/- 10 years) from an adult employed population. Gender-specific upper normal limits were used to identify ventricular hypertrophy. Left ventricular mass/height 2.7 was higher in obese than normal-weight normotensive subjects (P < .004) independently of the level of blood pressure and identified a higher prevalence of hypertrophy (mainly eccentric) in obese than in normal-weight normotensive subjects (14% versus 5%, P < .04), a difference that was not detected by left ventricular mass/body surface area. Left ventricular mass/height identified hypertrophy in 52% of obese and 30% of normal-weight hypertensive patients (P < .0001) because of higher prevalences in obese than normal-weight patients of both eccentric (34% versus 20%) and concentric ventricular hypertrophy (18% versus 10%). The increase in left ventricular mass was independent of blood pressure values in obese normotensive women (but not men), and the prevalence of supranormal left ventricular mass/height 2.7 was even higher in hypertensive obese women (58%) than men (49%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation
                Circulation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7322
                1524-4539
                January 28 2003
                January 28 2003
                : 107
                : 3
                : 448-454
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Framingham Heart Study (H.P., M.G.L., E.J.B., D.L., P.W.F.W., R.S.V.); Lahey Clinic (M.K.R., R.W.N.), Burlington, Mass; the Cardiology Section (E.J.B., R.S.V.) and Department of Preventative Medicine and Epidemiology (M.G.L., D.L., E.J.B., P.W.F.W., R.S.V.), Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass; the Divisions of Cardiology and Clinical Epidemiology (D.L.), Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass; the Department of Medicine (J.B.M.),...
                Article
                10.1161/01.CIR.0000045671.62860.98
                12551870
                © 2003

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