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      Role of prophylactic antibiotics in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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          Abstract

          Backgrounds/Aims

          The role of prophylactic antibiotics for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in low-risk patients is still unclear. This study aimed to verify the conclusion of previous meta-analyses concerning the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in low-risk patients.

          Methods

          Comprehensive literature searches were performed on electric databases and manual searches. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective studies, and retrospective studies comparing antibiotic prophylaxis to placebo or no antibiotics in low-risk elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included.

          Results

          This study included 28 RCTs, three prospective studies, and three retrospective studies. In RCTs, prophylactic antibiotics did not prevent deep surgical site infections (SSI) (RR 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.45–2.69], p=0.84) but reduced SSI (RR 0.70, 95% CI [0.53–0.94], p=0.02), and superficial SSI (RR 0.58, 95% CI [0.42–0.82], p=0.01). Prospective studies showed prophylactic antibiotics did not reduce superficial SSI (RR 0.35, 95% CI [0.01–8.40], p=0.52) but reduced SSI (RR 0.12, 95% CI [0.04–0.35], p=0.0001). In retrospective studies, antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce SSI (RR 1.59, 95% CI [0.30–8.32], p=0.58). The pooled data (12121 patients) including RCTs and prospective and retrospective studies showed that prophylactic antibiotics were not effective in preventing deep SSI (RR 1.01 95% CI [0.46–2.21], p=0.98) but effective in reducing SSI (RR 0.67, 95% CI [0.51–0.88], p=0.003) and superficial SSI (RR 0.61, 95% CI [0.45–0.83], p=0.002).

          Conclusions

          The use of prophylactic antibiotics is effective for reducing the incidence of SSI and superficial SSI but is not effective for preventing deep SSI in low-risk patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

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          Most cited references 83

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          The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials

          Flaws in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of randomised trials can cause the effect of an intervention to be underestimated or overestimated. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias aims to make the process clearer and more accurate
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            Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement.

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              Critical evaluation of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for the assessment of the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analyses.

               Andreas Stang (2010)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
                Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
                AHBPS
                Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
                Korean Association of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
                2508-5778
                2508-5859
                August 2018
                31 August 2018
                : 22
                : 3
                : 231-247
                10.14701/ahbps.2018.22.3.231
                6125276
                Copyright © 2018 by The Korean Association of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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