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      Notch, IL-1 and Leptin Crosstalk Outcome (NILCO) Is Critical for Leptin-Induced Proliferation, Migration and VEGF/VEGFR-2 Expression in Breast Cancer

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          High levels of pro-angiogenic factors, leptin, IL-1, Notch and VEGF (ligands and receptors), are found in breast cancer, which is commonly correlated with metastasis and lower survival of patients. We have previously reported that leptin induces the growth of breast cancer and the expression of VEGF/VEGFR-2 and IL-1 system. We hypothesized that Notch, IL-1 and leptin crosstalk outcome (NILCO) plays an essential role in the regulation of leptin-mediated induction of proliferation/migration and expression of pro-angiogenic molecules in breast cancer. To test this hypothesis, leptin's effects on the expression and activation of Notch signaling pathway and VEGF/VEGFR-2/IL-1 were determined in mouse (4T1, EMT6 and MMT) breast cancer cells. Remarkably, leptin up-regulated Notch1-4/JAG1/Dll-4, Notch target genes: Hey2 and survivin, together with IL-1 and VEGF/VEGFR-2. RNA knockdown and pharmacological inhibitors of leptin signaling significantly abrogated activity of reporter gene-luciferase CSL (RBP-Jk) promoter, showing that it was linked to leptin-activated JAK2/STAT3, MAPK, PI-3K/mTOR, p38 and JNK signaling pathways. Interestingly, leptin upregulatory effects on cell proliferation/migration and pro-angiogenic factors Notch, IL-1 and VEGF/VEGFR-2 were abrogated by a γ-secretase inhibitor, DAPT, as well as siRNA against CSL. In addition, blockade of IL-1R tI inhibited leptin-induced Notch, Hey2 and survivin as well as VEGF/VEGFR-2 expression. These data suggest leptin is an inducer of Notch (expression/activation) and IL-1 signaling modulates leptin effects on Notch and VEGF/VEGFR-2. We show for the first time that a novel unveiled crosstalk between Notch, IL-1 and leptin (NILCO) occurs in breast cancer. Leptin induction of proliferation/migration and upregulation of VEGF/VEGFR-2 in breast cancer cells were related to an intact Notch signaling axis. NILCO could represent the integration of developmental, pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic signals critical for leptin-induced cell proliferation/migration and regulation of VEGF/VEGFR-2 in breast cancer. Targeting NILCO might help to design new pharmacological strategies aimed at controlling breast cancer growth and angiogenesis.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Leptin stimulates fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

          Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that plays a pivotal role in regulating food intake, energy expenditure and neuroendocrine function. Leptin stimulates the oxidation of fatty acids and the uptake of glucose, and prevents the accumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues, which can lead to functional impairments known as "lipotoxicity". The signalling pathways that mediate the metabolic effects of leptin remain undefined. The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) potently stimulates fatty-acid oxidation in muscle by inhibiting the activity of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC). AMPK is a heterotrimeric enzyme that is conserved from yeast to humans and functions as a 'fuel gauge' to monitor the status of cellular energy. Here we show that leptin selectively stimulates phosphorylation and activation of the alpha2 catalytic subunit of AMPK (alpha2 AMPK) in skeletal muscle, thus establishing a previously unknown signalling pathway for leptin. Early activation of AMPK occurs by leptin acting directly on muscle, whereas later activation depends on leptin functioning through the hypothalamic-sympathetic nervous system axis. In parallel with its activation of AMPK, leptin suppresses the activity of ACC, thereby stimulating the oxidation of fatty acids in muscle. Blocking AMPK activation inhibits the phosphorylation of ACC stimulated by leptin. Our data identify AMPK as a principal mediator of the effects of leptin on fatty-acid metabolism in muscle.
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            HES and HERP families: multiple effectors of the Notch signaling pathway.

            Notch signaling dictates cell fate and critically influences cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in metazoans. Multiple factors at each step-ligands, receptors, signal transducers and effectors-play critical roles in executing the pleiotropic effects of Notch signaling. Ligand-binding results in proteolytic cleavage of Notch receptors to release the signal-transducing Notch intracellular domain (NICD). NICD migrates into the nucleus and associates with the nuclear proteins of the RBP-Jkappa family (also known as CSL or CBF1/Su(H)/Lag-1). RBP-Jkappa, when complexed with NICD, acts as a transcriptional activator, and the RBP-Jkappa-NICD complex activates expression of primary target genes of Notch signaling such as the HES and enhancer of split [E(spl)] families. HES/E(spl) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type of transcriptional repressor, and suppresses expression of downstream target genes such as tissue-specific transcriptional activators. Thus, HES/E(spl) directly affects cell fate decisions as a primary Notch effector. HES/E(spl) had been the only known effector of Notch signaling until a recent discovery of a related but distinct bHLH protein family, termed HERP (HES-related repressor protein, also called Hey/Hesr/HRT/CHF/gridlock). In this review, we summarize the recent data supporting the idea of HERP being a new Notch effector, and provide an overview of the similarities and differences between HES and HERP in their biochemical properties as well as their tissue distribution. One key observation derived from identification of HERP is that HES and HERP form a heterodimer and cooperate for transcriptional repression. The identification of the HERP family as a Notch effector that cooperates with HES/E(spl) family has opened a new avenue to our understanding of the Notch signaling pathway. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              IL-1 is required for tumor invasiveness and angiogenesis.

              Here, we describe that microenvironmental IL-1 beta and, to a lesser extent, IL-1 alpha are required for in vivo angiogenesis and invasiveness of different tumor cells. In IL-1 beta knockout (KO) mice, local tumor or lung metastases of B16 melanoma cells were not observed compared with WT mice. Angiogenesis was assessed by the recruitment of blood vessel networks into Matrigel plugs containing B16 melanoma cells; vascularization of the plugs was present in WT mice, but was absent in IL-1 beta KO mice. The addition of exogenous IL-1 into B16-containing Matrigel plugs in IL-1 beta KO mice partially restored the angiogenic response. Moreover, the incorporation of IL-1 receptor antagonist to B16-containing plugs in WT mice inhibited the ingrowth of blood vessel networks into Matrigel plugs. In IL-1 alpha KO mice, local tumor development and induction of an angiogenic response in Matrigel plugs was less pronounced than in WT mice, but significantly higher than in IL-1 beta KO mice. These effects of host-derived IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta were not restricted to the melanoma model, but were also observed in DA/3 mammary and prostate cancer cell models. In addition to the in vivo findings, IL-1 contributed to the production of vascular endothelial cell growth factor and tumor necrosis factor in cocultures of peritoneal macrophages and tumor cells. Host-derived IL-1 seems to control tumor angiogenesis and invasiveness. Furthermore, the anti-angiogenic effects of IL-1 receptor antagonist, shown here, suggest a possible therapeutic role in cancer, in addition to its current use in rheumatoid arthritis.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                23 June 2011
                : 6
                : 6
                Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
                University of Pennsylvania, United States of America
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: RRG-P SG. Performed the experiments: SG. Analyzed the data: RRG-P SG. Wrote the paper: RRG-P SG.

                Guo, Gonzalez-Perez. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Pages: 12
                Research Article
                Molecular Cell Biology
                Basic Cancer Research
                Tumor Physiology
                Cancer Risk Factors
                Hormonal Causes of Cancer
                Cancer Treatment
                Antiangiogenesis Therapy
                Cancers and Neoplasms
                Breast Tumors



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