Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Alendronate-coated long-circulating liposomes containing 99mtechnetium-ceftizoxime used to identify osteomyelitis

Read this article at

ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      Osteomyelitis is a progressive destruction of bones caused by microorganisms. Inadequate or absent treatment increases the risk of bone growth inhibition, fractures, and sepsis. Among the diagnostic techniques, functional images are the most sensitive in detecting osteomyelitis in its early stages. However, these techniques do not have adequate specificity. By contrast, radiolabeled antibiotics could improve selectivity, since they are specifically recognized by the bacteria. The incorporation of these radiopharmaceuticals in drug-delivery systems with high affinity for bones could improve the overall uptake. In this work, long-circulating and alendronate-coated liposomes containing 99mtechnetium-radiolabeled ceftizoxime were prepared and their ability to identify infectious foci (osteomyelitis) in animal models was evaluated. The effect of the presence of PEGylated lipids and surface-attached alendronate was evaluated. The bone-targeted long-circulating liposomal 99mtechnetium–ceftizoxime showed higher uptake in regions of septic inflammation than did the non-long-circulating and/or alendronate-non-coated liposomes, showing that both the presence of PEGylated lipids and alendronate coating are important to optimize the bone targeting. Scintigraphic images of septic or aseptic inflammation-bearing Wistar rats, as well as healthy rats, were acquired at different time intervals after the intravenous administration of these liposomes. The target-to-non-target ratio proved to be significantly higher in the osteomyelitis-bearing animals for all investigated time intervals. Biodistribution studies were also performed after the intravenous administration of the formulation in osteomyelitis-bearing animals. A significant amount of liposomes were taken up by the organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system (liver and spleen). Intense renal excretion was also observed during the entire experiment period. Moreover, the liposome uptake by the infectious focus was significantly high. These results show that long-circulating and alendronate-coated liposomes containing 99mtechnetium-radiolabeled ceftizoxime have a tropism for infectious foci.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 40

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Cancer nanotechnology: the impact of passive and active targeting in the era of modern cancer biology.

      Cancer nanotherapeutics are progressing at a steady rate; research and development in the field has experienced an exponential growth since early 2000's. The path to the commercialization of oncology drugs is long and carries significant risk; however, there is considerable excitement that nanoparticle technologies may contribute to the success of cancer drug development. The pace at which pharmaceutical companies have formed partnerships to use proprietary nanoparticle technologies has considerably accelerated. It is now recognized that by enhancing the efficacy and/or tolerability of new drug candidates, nanotechnology can meaningfully contribute to create differentiated products and improve clinical outcome. This review describes the lessons learned since the commercialization of the first-generation nanomedicines including DOXIL® and Abraxane®. It explores our current understanding of targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles that are under various stages of development, including BIND-014 and MM-398. It highlights the opportunities and challenges faced by nanomedicines in contemporary oncology, where personalized medicine is increasingly the mainstay of cancer therapy. We revisit the fundamental concepts of enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR) and explore the mechanisms proposed to enhance preferential "retention" in the tumor, whether using active targeting of nanoparticles, binding of drugs to their tumoral targets or the presence of tumor associated macrophages. The overall objective of this review is to enhance our understanding in the design and development of therapeutic nanoparticles for treatment of cancers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        Targeting nanoparticles to cancer.

         M. Wang,  M. Thanou (2010)
        Nanotechnology applications in medicine, termed as nanomedicine, have introduced a number of nanoparticles of variable chemistry and architecture for cancer imaging and treatment. Nanotechnology involves engineering multifunctional devices with dimensions at the nanoscale, similar dimensions as those of large biological vesicles or molecules in our body. These devices typically have features just tens to hundred nanometers across and they can carry one or two detection signals and/or therapeutic cargo(s). One unique class of nanoparticles is designed to do both, providing this way the theragnostic nanoparticles (therapy and diagnosis). Being inspired by physiologically existing nanomachines, nanoparticles are designed to safely reach their target and specifically release their cargo at the site of the disease, this way increasing the drug's tissue bioavailability. Nanoparticles have the advantage of targeting cancer by simply being accumulated and entrapped in tumours (passive targeting). The phenomenon is called the enhanced permeation and retention effect, caused by leaky angiogenetic vessels and poor lymphatic drainage and has been used to explain why macromolecules and nanoparticles are found at higher ratios in tumours compared to normal tissues. Although accumulation in tumours is observed cell uptake and intracellular drug release have been questioned. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) is used to protect the nanoparticles from the Reticulo-Endothelial System (RES), however, it prevents cell uptake and the required intracellular drug release. Grafting biorecognition molecules (ligands) onto the nanoparticles refers to active targeting and aims to increase specific cell uptake. Nanoparticles bearing these ligands are recognised by cell surface receptors and this leads to receptor-mediated endocytosis. Several materials are suggested for the design of nanoparticles for cancer. Polymers, linear and dendrimers, are associated with the drug in a covalent or non-covalent way and have been used with or without a targeting ligand. Stealth liposomes are suggested to carry the drug in the aqueous core, and they are usually decorated by recognition molecules, being widely studied and applied. Inorganic nanoparticles such as gold and iron oxide are usually coupled to the drug, PEG and the targeting ligand. It appears that the PEG coating and ligand decoration are common constituents in most types of nanoparticles for cancer. There are several examples of successful cancer diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles and many of them have rapidly moved to clinical trials. Nevertheless there is still a room for optimisation in the area of the nanoparticle kinetics such as improving their plasma circulation and tumour bioavailability and understanding the effect of targeting ligands on their efficiency to treat cancer. The need to develop novel and efficient ligands has never been greater, and the use of proper conjugation chemistry is mandatory. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Targeted pharmaceutical nanocarriers for cancer therapy and imaging.

          The use of various pharmaceutical nanocarriers has become one of the most important areas of nanomedicine. Ideally, such carriers should be specifically delivered (targeted) to the pathological area to provide the maximum therapeutic efficacy. Among the many potential targets for such nanocarriers, tumors have been most often investigated. This review attempts to summarize currently available information regarding targeted pharmaceutical nanocarriers for cancer therapy and imaging. Certain issues related to some popular pharmaceutical nanocarriers, such as liposomes and polymeric micelles, are addressed, as are different ways to target tumors via specific ligands and via the stimuli sensitivity of the carriers. The importance of intracellular targeting of drug- and DNA-loaded pharmaceutical nanocarriers is specifically discussed, including intracellular delivery with cell-penetrating peptides.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
            [2 ]Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
            [3 ]Veterinary School, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Mônica Cristina Oliveira, Department of Pharmaceutical Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627 - Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Brazil, Tel +55 31 3409 6945, Fax +55 31 3409 6935, Email monicacristina@ 123456ufmg.br ; itabra2001@ 123456yahoo.com.br
            Journal
            Int J Nanomedicine
            Int J Nanomedicine
            International Journal of Nanomedicine
            International Journal of Nanomedicine
            Dove Medical Press
            1176-9114
            1178-2013
            2015
            25 March 2015
            : 10
            : 2441-2450
            4381632
            10.2147/IJN.S76168
            ijn-10-2441
            © 2015 Ferreira et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

            The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

            Categories
            Original Research

            Comments

            Comment on this article