Background: Thyroid carcinoma in childhood and adolescence is uncommon and because of the slow progression of disease the standard treatment is controversial. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of treatment results for differentiated thyroid carcinoma in this age group treated in our clinic. Material and Methods: From August 1988 to February 2001, 15 patients between the ages of 8 and 21 years (average 16.8) were treated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma at Akdeniz University Medical School Departments of General and Pediatric Surgery. The patients included 10 (67%) females and 5 (33%) males. None of the patients had a previous positive history of head and neck irradiation. All patients, except 2, were euthyroid at the time of diagnosis. Results: Nine of the patients underwent total thyroidectomy and in 6 cases subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. There were multiple lymph node metastases in 4 (27%) patients and (various forms of) cervical lymph node dissections were performed in these patients. In addition, 2 children (13%) showed pulmonary metastasis. The incidence of surgical complications was 20% (1 permanent, 1 transient hypoparathyroidism and 1 permanent laryngeal nerve injury). Histological examinations revealed the following: papillary carcinoma in 9 (60%), follicular carcinoma in 5 (33%) patients, and Hurthle cell carcinoma in 1 (7%) patient. Postoperative radioiodine ablation was also added to treatment in 10 (67%) of the patients and all patients received L-thyroxine in suppressive doses. After a median follow-up period of 57 months (range 5–149), all patients are alive and disease-free. Conclusion: Our observations suggest that although most children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are seen with more extensive disease than adults, a total or subtotal thyroidectomy with an appropriate lymph node dissection followed by ablative radioiodine treatment carries a more favorable prognosis.