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      The stomach is a source of leptin.

      Nature

      Adipocytes, secretion, Animals, Gastric Mucosa, chemistry, Gastrins, pharmacology, Leptin, Male, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Proteins, analysis, genetics, RNA, Messenger, Rats, Rats, Wistar, Sincalide, Stomach, drug effects

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          Abstract

          The circulating peptide leptin, which is the product of the ob gene, provides feedback information on the size of fat stores to central Ob receptors that control food intake and body-weight homeostasis. Leptin has so far been reported to be secreted only by adipocytes and the placenta. Here we show that leptin messenger RNA and leptin protein are present in rat gastric epithelium, and that cells in the glands of the gastric fundic mucosa are immunoreactive for leptin. The physiological function of this previously unsuspected source of leptin is unknown. However, both feeding and administration of CCK-8 (the biologically active carboxy-terminal end of cholecystokinin) result in a rapid and large decrease in both leptin cell immunoreactivity and the leptin content of the fundic epithelium, with a concomitant increase in the concentration of leptin in the plasma. These results indicate that gastric leptin may be involved in early CCK-mediated effects activated by food intake, possibly including satiety.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Identification and expression cloning of a leptin receptor, OB-R.

          The ob gene product, leptin, is an important circulating signal for the regulation of body weight. To identify high affinity leptin-binding sites, we generated a series of leptin-alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion proteins as well as [125I]leptin. After a binding survey of cell lines and tissues, we identified leptin-binding sites in the mouse choroid plexus. A cDNA expression library was prepared from mouse choroid plexus and screened with a leptin-AP fusion protein to identify a leptin receptor (OB-R). OB-R is a single membrane-spanning receptor most related to the gp130 signal-transducing component of the IL-6 receptor, the G-CSF receptor, and the LIF receptor. OB-R mRNA is expressed not only in choroid plexus, but also in several other tissues, including hypothalamus. Genetic mapping of the gene encoding OB-R shows that it is within the 5.1 cM interval of mouse chromosome 4 that contains the db locus.
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            Abnormal splicing of the leptin receptor in diabetic mice.

            Mutations in the mouse diabetes (db) gene result in obesity and diabetes in a syndrome resembling morbid human obesity. Previous data suggest that the db gene encodes the receptor for the obese (ob) gene product, leptin. A leptin receptor was recently cloned from choroid plexus and shown to map to the same 6-cM interval on mouse chromosome 4 as db. This receptor maps to the same 300-kilobase interval as db, and has at least six alternatively spliced forms. One of these splice variants is expressed at a high level in the hypothalamus, and is abnormally spliced in C57BL/Ks db/db mice. The mutant protein is missing the cytoplasmic region, and is likely to be defective in signal transduction. This suggests that the weight-reducing effects of leptin may be mediated by signal transduction through a leptin receptor in the hypothalamus.
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              Regulated expression of the obese gene product (leptin) in white adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

              A mutation within the obese gene was recently identified as the genetic basis for obesity in the ob/ob mouse. The obese gene product, leptin, is a 16-kDa protein expressed predominantly in adipose tissue. Consistent with leptin's postulated role as an extracellular signaling protein, human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with the obese gene secreted leptin with minimal intracellular accumulation. Upon differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes, the leptin mRNA was expressed concomitant with mRNAs encoding adipocyte marker proteins. A factor(s) present in calf serum markedly activated expression of leptin by fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A 16-hr fast decreased (by approximately 85%) the leptin mRNA level of adipose tissue of lean (ob/+ or +/+) mice but had no effect on the approximately 4-fold higher level in obese (ob/ob) littermates. Since the mutation at the ob locus fails to produce the functional protein, yet its cognate mRNA is overproduced, it appears that leptin is necessary for its own downregulation. Leptin mRNA was also suppressed in adipose tissue of rats during a 16-hr fast and was rapidly induced during a 4-hr refeeding period. Insulin deficiency provoked by streptozotocin also markedly down-regulated leptin mRNA and this suppression was rapidly reversed by insulin. These results suggest that insulin may regulate the expression of leptin.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                9723619
                10.1038/29547

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