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      Cardiac Function and Diastolic Dysfunction in Behcet's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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          Background. Cardiovascular involvement in Behcet's disease (BD) is reported and has variable manifestations. It is not clear if diastolic dysfunction (DD) is increased in BD. Our objective was to evaluate the existing literature to determine if cardiac dysfunction, particularly DD, was more prevalent in these patients. Methods. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the available studies analyzing the echocardiographic findings in BD was conducted using a random-effects model. Mean differences were used to calculate the effect sizes of the echocardiographic parameters of interest. Results. A total of 22 studies with 1624 subjects were included in the analysis. Patients with BD had statistically significantly larger mean left atrial dimension (0.08, p = 0.0008), greater aortic diameter (0.16, p = 0.02), significantly reduced ejection fraction (−1.08, p < 0.0001), significantly prolonged mitral deceleration time (14.20, p < 0.0001), lower E/ A ratio (−0.24, p = 0.05), and increased isovolumetric relaxation time (7.29, p < 0.00001). Conclusion. DD is increased in patients with BD by the presence of several echocardiographic parameters favoring DD as compared to controls. The meta-analysis also identified that LA dimension is increased in BD patients. EF has also been found to be lower in BD patients. Aortic diameter was also increased in BD patients as compared to controls.

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          Burden of systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction in the community: appreciating the scope of the heart failure epidemic.

          Approximately half of patients with overt congestive heart failure (CHF) have diastolic dysfunction without reduced ejection fraction (EF). Yet, the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction and its relation to systolic dysfunction and CHF in the community remain undefined. To determine the prevalence of CHF and preclinical diastolic dysfunction and systolic dysfunction in the community and determine if diastolic dysfunction is predictive of all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional survey of 2042 randomly selected residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, aged 45 years or older from June 1997 through September 2000. Doppler echocardiographic assessment of systolic and diastolic function. Presence of CHF diagnosis by review of medical records with designation as validated CHF if Framingham criteria are satisfied. Subjects without a CHF diagnosis but with diastolic or systolic dysfunction were considered as having either preclinical diastolic or preclinical systolic dysfunction. The prevalence of validated CHF was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6%-2.8%) with 44% having an EF higher than 50%. Overall, 20.8% (95% CI, 19.0%-22.7%) of the population had mild diastolic dysfunction, 6.6% (95% CI, 5.5%-7.8%) had moderate diastolic dysfunction, and 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.1%) had severe diastolic dysfunction with 5.6% (95% CI, 4.5%-6.7%) of the population having moderate or severe diastolic dysfunction with normal EF. The prevalence of any systolic dysfunction (EF < or =50%) was 6.0% (95% CI, 5.0%-7.1%) with moderate or severe systolic dysfunction (EF < or =40%) being present in 2.0% (95% CI, 1.4%-2.5%). CHF was much more common among those with systolic or diastolic dysfunction than in those with normal ventricular function. However, even among those with moderate or severe diastolic or systolic dysfunction, less than half had recognized CHF. In multivariate analysis, controlling for age, sex, and EF, mild diastolic dysfunction (hazard ratio, 8.31 [95% CI, 3.00-23.1], P<.001) and moderate or severe diastolic dysfunction (hazard ratio, 10.17 [95% CI, 3.28-31.0], P<.001) were predictive of all-cause mortality. In the community, systolic dysfunction is frequently present in individuals without recognized CHF. Furthermore, diastolic dysfunction as rigorously defined by comprehensive Doppler techniques is common, often not accompanied by recognized CHF, and associated with marked increases in all-cause mortality.
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            Left atrial volume: important risk marker of incident atrial fibrillation in 1655 older men and women.

            To evaluate the contribution of left atrial (LA) volume in predicting atrial fibrillation (AF). In this retrospective cohort study, a random sample of 2200 adults was identified from all Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents who had undergone transthoracic echocardiographic assessment between 1990 and 1998 and were 65 years of age or older at the time of examination, were in sinus rhythm, and had no history of AF or other atrial arrhythmias, stroke, pacemaker, congenital heart disease, or valve surgery. The LA volume was measured off-line by using a biplane area-length method. Clinical characteristics and the outcome event of incident AF were determined by retrospective review of medical records. Echocardiographic data were retrieved from the laboratory database. From this cohort, 1655 patients in whom LA size data were available were followed from baseline echocardiogram until development of AF or death. The clinical and echocardiographic associations of AF, especially with respect to the role of LA volume in predicting AF, were determined. A total of 666 men and 989 women, mean +/- SD age of 75.2 +/- 7.3 years (range, 65-105 years), were followed for a mean +/- SD of 3.97 +/- 2.75 years (range, < 1.00-10.78 years); 189 (11.4%) developed AF. Cox model 5-year cumulative risks of AF by quartiles of LA volume were 3%, 12%, 15%, and 26%, respectively. With Cox proportional hazards multivariate models, logarithmic LA volume was an independent predictor of AF, incremental to clinical risk factors. After adjusting for age, sex, valvular heart disease, and hypertension, a 30% larger LA volume was associated with a 43% greater risk of AF, incremental to history of congestive heart failure (hazard ratio [HR], 1.887; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.230-2.895; P = .004), myocardial infarction (HR, 1.751; 95% CI, 1.189-2.577; P = .004), and diabetes (HR, 1.734; 95% CI, 1.066-2.819; P = .03). Left atrial volume remained incremental to combined clinical risk factors and M-mode LA dimension for prediction of AF (P < .001). This study showed that a larger LA volume was associated with a higher risk of AF in older patients. The predictive value of LA volume was incremental to that of clinical risk profile and conventional M-mode LA dimension.
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              Pre-clinical diastolic dysfunction.

              Pre-clinical diastolic dysfunction (PDD) has been broadly defined as left ventricular diastolic dysfunction without the diagnosis of congestive heart failure (HF) and with normal systolic function. PDD is an entity that remains poorly understood, yet has definite clinical significance. Although few original studies have focused on PDD, it has been shown that PDD is prevalent, and that there is a clear progression from PDD to symptomatic HF including dyspnea, edema, and fatigue. In diabetic patients and in patients with coronary artery disease or hypertension, it has been shown that patients with PDD have a significantly higher risk of progression to heart failure and death compared with patients without PDD. Because of these findings and the increasing prevalence of the heart failure epidemic, it is clear that an understanding of PDD is essential to decreasing patients' morbidity and mortality. This review will focus on what is known concerning pre-clinical diastolic dysfunction, including definitions, staging, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and the natural history of the disease. In addition, given the paucity of trials focused on PDD treatment, studies targeting risk factors associated with the development of PDD and therapeutic trials for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction will be reviewed. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Int J Rheumatol
                Int J Rheumatol
                International Journal of Rheumatology
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                10 May 2016
                : 2016
                1Division of Rheumatology, Mayo Clinic Health System, Eau Claire, WI 54703, USA
                2Department of Cardiology, Texas Heart Institute at CHI St. Luke's Medical Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
                3Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Department of Health Sciences Research and Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55906, USA
                4Section of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Malcolm Smith

                Copyright © 2016 Fawad Aslam et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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