Inactivated COVID-19 vaccines have been widely used to vaccinate the Chinese population. However, limited literature exists to explore the effect of obesity on the humoral and cellular immune response to these vaccines. In this study, 132 high BMI (Body mass index) (obesity and overweight, BMI ≥ 24 kg/m 2) and 82 normal BMI (BMI < 24 kg/m 2) participants were enrolled. Adverse events (AEs), Spike receptor-binding domain IgG antibody (anti-RBD-IgG), neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), and specific B-cell and T-cell responses were evaluated 21-105 days after full-course inactivated COVID-19 vaccination. The overall incidence of adverse events (AEs) was similar in individuals with and without obesity/overweight. No serious vaccine-related AEs occurred. Individuals with obesity/overweight had a reduced seropositivity rate of NAbs compared to those with normal BMI. Anti-RBD-IgG and NAbs titers in the high BMI group were significantly lower than those in the normal BMI group. The frequencies of RBD-specific memory B cells (MBCs) and the numbers of spike-specific TNF-α+ spot-forming cells (SFCs) in individuals with obesity/overweight were reduced compared with those noted in individuals without obesity/overweight. A similar trend of weakened humoral responses was also observed in individuals with central obesity. Our study results suggested that inactivated COVID-19 vaccines were safe and well tolerated but induced poor humoral and cellular immune responses in Chinese individuals with obesity/overweight.