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      Quantitation of camellianin A in HepG2 cells using a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric method

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          The present study was designed to develop a sensitive and selective high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of Camellianin A in HepG2 cells. The extraction of Camellianin A was achieved using 15% trichloroacetic acid and then separated on a C 18 column interfaced with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The mobile phase was consisted of methanol-water (0.1% formic acid) (55 : 45, V/V). The total run time was 5.0 min. The method was linear in the concentration range of 0.25–250.0 ng·mL −1. The lower limit of quantification was 0.25 ng·mL −1. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations of entire concentration range were less than 9.3%. The proposed HPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to detect the intracellular concentration of Camellianin A in HepG2 cells.

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          Antioxidant and antiradical activities of flavonoids.

          The relationship between the structure of 42 flavonoids and their antioxidant and antiradical activities was elucidated by heat-induced oxidation in a beta-carotene and linoleic acid system and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl decoloration test. From seven structurally divergent groups of flavonoids, only flavonols with a free hydroxyl group at the C-3 position of the flavonoid skeleton showed high inhibitory activity to beta-carotene oxidation. Antiradical activity depended on the presence of a flavonol structure or free hydroxyl group at the C-4' position. The effect of the 4'-hydroxyl was strongly modified by other structural features, such as the presence of free hydroxyls at C-3 and/or C-3' and a C2-C3 double bond.
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            Flavonoids from Hypericum perforatum show antidepressant activity in the forced swimming test.

            It has been shown recently that a flavonoid fraction (fraction II) obtained from a crude extract of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) was remarkably active in the forced swimming test (FST). Fraction II was further separated using MLCCC to give fractions IIa and IIb. Both fractions proved to be active in the FST at different dosages. Further separation of fraction IIa by preparative HPLC yielded fraction IIa1 which mainly was composed of hyperoside, isoquercitrin, miquelianin and quercitrin, and fraction IIa2 which contained small amounts of hyperoside and astilbin, while most compounds were not known. Both fractions were active after acute treatment in the FST. Isolates obtained from these fractions including hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, miquelianin, the aglycone quercetin and astilbin, were tested for activity in the FST. Except for quercetin, quercitrin and astilbin all compounds were active. To exclude false positive results in the FST the validity was checked in open field experiments and in the FST after 12 days of daily treatment.
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              Metabolic conversion of dietary flavonoids alters their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

              The notion that dietary flavonoids exert beneficial health effects in humans is often based on in vitro studies using the glycoside or aglycone forms of these flavonoids. However, flavonoids are extensively metabolized in humans, resulting in the formation of glucuronide, methyl, and sulfate derivatives, which may have different properties than their parent compounds. The goal of this study was to investigate whether different chemical modifications of the same flavonoid molecule affect its biological and antioxidant activities. Hence, we studied the anti-inflammatory effects of several major human metabolites of quercetin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) by assessing their inhibitory effects on tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced protein expression of cellular adhesion molecules in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). HAEC were incubated with 1-30 μM quercetin, 3'- or 4'-O-methyl-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and quercetin-3'-O-sulfate or 20-100 μM EGCG, 4''-O-methyl-EGCG, and 4',4''-di-O-methyl-EGCG, prior to coincubation with 100 U/ml of TNFα. 3'-O-Methyl-quercetin, 4'-O-methyl-quercetin, and their parent aglycone compound, quercetin, all effectively inhibited expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) with IC(50) values (concentration required for 50% inhibition) of 8.0, 5.0, and 4.4 μM, respectively; E-selectin expression was suppressed to a somewhat lesser but still significant degree by all three compounds, whereas vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was not affected. In contrast, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (20-100 μM), quercetin-3'-O-sulfate (10-30 μM), and phenolic acid metabolites of quercetin (20-100 μM) did not inhibit adhesion molecule expression. 4',4''-Di-O-methyl-EGCG selectively inhibited ICAM-1 expression with an IC(50) value of 94 μM, whereas EGCG (20-60 μM) and 4''-O-methyl-EGCG (20-100 μM) had no effect. The inhibitory effects of 3'-O-methyl-quercetin and 4',4''-di-O-methyl-EGCG on adhesion molecule expression were not related either to inhibition of NF-κB activation or to their antioxidant reducing capacity. Our data indicate that flavonoid metabolites have different biological and antioxidant properties than their parent compounds, and suggest that data from in vitro studies using nonmetabolites of flavonoids are of limited relevance in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                20 March 2017
                : 15
                : 3
                : 234-240
                1State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau 999078, China
                2School of Public Health, Baotou Medical College, Baotou 014060, China
                3Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance (Ministry of Education), China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: ZHANG Wei, Tel: 853-8897-2463, Fax: 853-2882-5886 E-mail: wzhang@

                ΔCo-first author

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
                Funded by: Macao Science and Technology Development Fund
                Award ID: FDCT, 006/2015/A1
                Funded by: Open Project of Guangxi Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Quality Standards
                Award ID: Guizhongzhongkai201501
                This work is supported by Macao Science and Technology Development Fund (No. FDCT, 006/2015/A1) and Open Project of Guangxi Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Quality Standards (No. Guizhongzhongkai201501).


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