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      A Fixed-Dose Combination Of Gemigliptin And Rosuvastatin Exhibits Similar Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, And Safety Compared To That Of A Loose Combination In Healthy Subjects

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Fixed-dose combination (FDC) of gemigliptin and rosuvastatin may improve medication compliance of patients with comorbid type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and safety of gemigliptin/rosuvastatin 50/20 mg FDC was compared with a loose combination of individual tablets in healthy subjects.

          Patients and methods

          A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence, two-treatment crossover study was conducted. Subjects received FDC or a loose combination of gemigliptin (50 mg) and rosuvastatin (20 mg) during each period, with a 14-day washout. Serial blood samples were collected up to 72 hrs after dosing to measure plasma concentrations of gemigliptin, its active metabolite LC15-0636, and rosuvastatin for PK assessment, and DPP-4 activity for PD assessment. PK and PD parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental method. Safety profiles were evaluated throughout the study.

          Results

          Thirty-seven subjects completed the study. The concentration-time profiles of gemigliptin, LC15-0636, and rosuvastatin were similar between FDC and loose combination, respectively. For each of the three compounds, the geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) of FDC to loose combination for C max and AUC last fell within the bioequivalence range of 0.8–1.25. Inhibition of DPP-4 activity–time profiles after administration of FDC and loose combination was overlapping, and I max and AUEC last were similar. Both FDC and the loose combination were well tolerated.

          Conclusion

          PK, PD, and safety profiles of gemigliptin, its metabolite, and rosuvastatin were similar between FDC and loose combination. The FDC of gemigliptin (50 mg) and rosuvastatin (20 mg) can be used as an alternative to a loose combination, which is expected to improve patient compliance.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

           A D Mooradian (2009)
          Dyslipidemia is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. The characteristic features of diabetic dyslipidemia are a high plasma triglyceride concentration, low HDL cholesterol concentration and increased concentration of small dense LDL-cholesterol particles. The lipid changes associated with diabetes mellitus are attributed to increased free fatty acid flux secondary to insulin resistance. The availability of multiple lipid-lowering drugs and supplements provides new opportunities for patients to achieve target lipid levels. However, the variety of therapeutic options poses a challenge in the prioritization of drug therapy. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia is not increased in patients with diabetes mellitus, but mortality from coronary heart disease increases exponentially as a function of serum cholesterol levels, and lowering of cholesterol with statins reduces diabetic patients' relative cardiovascular risk. Although drug therapy for dyslipidemia must be individualized, most people with diabetes mellitus are candidates for statin therapy, and often need treatment with multiple agents to achieve therapeutic goals.
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            CONSENSUS STATEMENT BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY ON THE COMPREHENSIVE TYPE 2 DIABETES MANAGEMENT ALGORITHM - 2018 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.

            A1C = hemoglobin A1C; AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; ACCORD = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; ACCORD BP = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure; ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ADVANCE = Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation; AGI = alpha-glucosidase inhibitor; apo B = apolipoprotein B; ASCVD = atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; BAS = bile acid sequestrant; BCR-QR = bromocriptine quick release; BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure; CCB = calcium channel blocker; CHD = coronary heart disease; CKD = chronic kidney disease; CVD = cardiovascular disease; DASH = Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension; DPP4 = dipeptidyl peptidase 4; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; ER = extended release; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; GLP1 = glucagon-like peptide 1; HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; IMPROVE-IT = Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial; LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-P = low-density lipoprotein particle; Look AHEAD = Look Action for Health in Diabetes; NPH = neutral protamine Hagedorn; OSA = obstructive sleep apnea; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SU = sulfonylurea; SGLT2 = sodium glucose cotransporter-2; SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose; T2D = type 2 diabetes; TZD = thiazolidinedione; VADT = Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial.
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              DPP-4 inhibitors.

               Bo Ahrén (2007)
              Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) is a novel treatment for type-2 diabetes. DPP-4 inhibition prevents the inactivation of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which increases levels of active GLP-1. This increases insulin secretion and reduces glucagon secretion, thereby lowering glucose levels. Several DPP-4 inhibitors are in clinical development. Most experience so far has been with sitagliptin (Merck; approved by the FDA) and vildagliptin (Novartis; filed). These are orally active compounds with a long duration, allowing once-daily administration. Both sitagliptin and vildagliptin improve metabolic control in type-2 diabetes, both in monotherapy and in combination with metformin and thiazolidinediones. A reduction in HbA(1c) of approximately 1% is seen in studies of DPP-4 inhibition of up to 52 weeks' duration. DPP-4 inhibition is safe and well tolerated, the risk of hypoglycaemia is minimal, and DPP-4 inhibition is body-weight neutral. DPP-4 inhibition is suggested to be a first-line treatment of type-2 diabetes, particularly in its early stages in combination with metformin. However, the durability and long-term safety of DPP-4 inhibition remain to be established.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                13 November 2019
                2019
                : 13
                : 3879-3885
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Clinical Trials Center, Seoul National University Hospital , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: SeungHwan Lee Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital , 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul03080, Republic of KoreaTel +82-2-2072-3520Fax +82-2-742-9252 Email leejh413@snu.ac.kr
                Article
                197054
                10.2147/DDDT.S197054
                6859084
                © 2019 Kim et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 23, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research

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