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      Impact of Supplementary Amino Acids, Micronutrients, and Overall Diet on Glutathione Homeostasis

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      Nutrients

      MDPI

      Glutathione, amino acids, micronutrients, supplementation, homeostasis

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          Abstract

          Glutathione (GSH) is a critical endogenous antioxidant found in all eukaryotic cells. Higher GSH concentrations protect against cellular damage, tissue degeneration, and disease progression in various models, so there is considerable interest in developing interventions that augment GSH biosynthesis. Oral GSH supplementation is not the most efficient option due to the enzymatic degradation of ingested GSH within the intestine by γ-glutamyltransferase, but supplementation of its component amino acids—cysteine, glycine, and glutamate—enhances tissue GSH synthesis. Furthermore, supplementation with some non-precursor amino acids and micronutrients appears to influence the redox status of GSH and related antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, lowering systemic oxidative stress and slowing the rate of tissue deterioration. In this review, the effects of oral supplementation of amino acids and micronutrients on GSH metabolism are evaluated. And since specific dietary patterns and diets are being prescribed as first-line therapeutics for conditions such as hypertension and diabetes, the impact of overall diets on GSH homeostasis is also assessed.

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          Most cited references 189

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          The thioredoxin antioxidant system.

           Arne Holmgren,  Jun Lu (2013)
          The thioredoxin (Trx) system, which is composed of NADPH, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and thioredoxin, is a key antioxidant system in defense against oxidative stress through its disulfide reductase activity regulating protein dithiol/disulfide balance. The Trx system provides the electrons to thiol-dependent peroxidases (peroxiredoxins) to remove reactive oxygen and nitrogen species with a fast reaction rate. Trx antioxidant functions are also shown by involvement in DNA and protein repair by reducing ribonucleotide reductase, methionine sulfoxide reductases, and regulating the activity of many redox-sensitive transcription factors. Moreover, Trx systems play critical roles in the immune response, virus infection, and cell death via interaction with thioredoxin-interacting protein. In mammalian cells, the cytosolic and mitochondrial Trx systems, in which TrxRs are high molecular weight selenoenzymes, together with the glutathione-glutaredoxin (Grx) system (NADPH, glutathione reductase, GSH, and Grx) control the cellular redox environment. Recently mammalian thioredoxin and glutathione systems have been found to be able to provide the electrons crossly and to serve as a backup system for each other. In contrast, bacteria TrxRs are low molecular weight enzymes with a structure and reaction mechanism distinct from mammalian TrxR. Many bacterial species possess specific thiol-dependent antioxidant systems, and the significance of the Trx system in the defense against oxidative stress is different. Particularly, the absence of a GSH-Grx system in some pathogenic bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Staphylococcus aureus makes the bacterial Trx system essential for survival under oxidative stress. This provides an opportunity to kill these bacteria by targeting the TrxR-Trx system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Oxidized redox state of glutathione in the endoplasmic reticulum.

            The redox state of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was measured with the peptide N-Acetyl-Asn-Tyr-Thr-Cys-NH2. The peptide diffused across cellular membranes; some became glycosylated and thus trapped within the secretory pathway, and its cysteine residue underwent reversible thiol-disulfide exchanges with the surrounding redox buffer. Glycosylated peptides from cells were disulfide-linked to glutathione, indicating that glutathione is the major redox buffer in the secretory pathway. The redox state of the secretory pathway was more oxidative than that of the cytosol; the ratio of reduced glutathione to the disulfide form (GSH/GSSG) within the secretory pathway ranged from 1:1 to 3:1, whereas the overall cellular GSH/GSSG ratio ranged from 30:1 to 100:1. Cytosolic glutathione was also transported into the lumen of microsomes in a cell-free system. Although how the ER maintains an oxidative environment is not known, these results suggest that the demonstrated preferential transport of GSSG compared to GSH into the ER lumen may contribute to this redox compartmentation.
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              Glutathione: overview of its protective roles, measurement, and biosynthesis.

              This review is the introduction to a special issue concerning, glutathione (GSH), the most abundant low molecular weight thiol compound synthesized in cells. GSH plays critical roles in protecting cells from oxidative damage and the toxicity of xenobiotic electrophiles, and maintaining redox homeostasis. Here, the functions and GSH and the sources of oxidants and electrophiles, the elimination of oxidants by reduction and electrophiles by conjugation with GSH are briefly described. Methods of assessing GSH status in the cells are also described. GSH synthesis and its regulation are addressed along with therapeutic approaches for manipulating GSH content that have been proposed. The purpose here is to provide a brief overview of some of the important aspects of glutathione metabolism as part of this special issue that will provide a more comprehensive review of the state of knowledge regarding this essential molecule.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                11 May 2019
                May 2019
                : 11
                : 5
                Affiliations
                Department of Foods and Nutrition, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA; rebecca.gould@ 123456uga.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: rpazdro@ 123456uga.edu ; Tel.: +1-706-542-7504
                Article
                nutrients-11-01056
                10.3390/nu11051056
                6566166
                31083508
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Nutrition & Dietetics

                glutathione, homeostasis, supplementation, micronutrients, amino acids

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