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      Resistance to Boscalid Fungicide in Alternaria alternata Isolates from Pistachio in California

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      Plant Disease

      Scientific Societies

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          Most cited references 26

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          Occurrence and molecular characterization of strobilurin resistance in cucumber powdery mildew and downy mildew.

          ABSTRACT Between 1998 and 1999, control failure of powdery mildew (Podosphaera fusca) and downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) by the strobilurin fungicides azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl was observed in cucumber-growing areas of Japan. Results from inoculation tests carried out on intact cucumber plants and leaf disks clearly showed the distribution of pathogen isolates highly resistant to azoxystrobin and kresoximmethyl. Fragments of the fungicide-targeted mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were polymerase chain reaction amplified from total pathogen DNA and their sequences analyzed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of resistance. A single point mutation (GGT to GCT) in the cytochrome b gene, resulting in substitution of glycine by alanine at position 143, was found in resistant isolates of downy mildew. This substitution in cytochrome b seemed to result in high resistance to strobilurins in this pathogen. The same mutation was found in some but not all resistant isolates of powdery mildew. This study suggests that a mutation at position 143 in the target-encoding gene, resulting in an amino acid substitution, was probably a major cause of the rapid development of high strobilurin resistance in these two pathogens.
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            Effect of the F129L Mutation in Alternaria solani on Fungicides Affecting Mitochondrial Respiration

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              Isolation, characterization and sequence of a gene conferring resistance to the systemic fungicide carboxin from the maize smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis.

              A gene which confers resistance to the systemic fungicide carboxin (Cbx) has been isolated from the maize pathogen, Ustilago maydis, by transferring a plasmid gene library from a Cbx-resistant mutant strain into a sensitive strain and selecting for expression of the resistance gene. Five plasmids, rescued from transformants which exhibited enhanced resistance to Cbx, were shown to have DNA inserts with common restriction enzyme fragments. All the plasmids transformed a sensitive U. maydis strain to Cbx resistance. The gene (Cbxr), sub-cloned on a 3.2 kb EcoR1-HindIII fragment, transformed U. maydis to Cbx resistance at frequencies similar to those obtained with the bacterial Hygromycin B resistance (HygBr) gene. The sequence of the Cbxr gene showed a high degree of homology to succinate dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.99.1) iron-sulphur subunit genes from other organisms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Plant Disease
                Plant Disease
                Scientific Societies
                0191-2917
                October 2007
                October 2007
                : 91
                : 10
                : 1345-1350
                Article
                10.1094/PDIS-91-10-1345
                14d52682-f728-4b2d-b2aa-62706441c32c
                © 2007

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