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      Resveratrol reverses multidrug resistance in human breast cancer doxorubicin-resistant cells

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          Abstract

          Although its mechanisms remain unidentified, resveratrol (trans-3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is an active, low molecular-weight compound, possesses a unique antitumor function and is capable of enhancing the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin (DOX) within solid tumor cells. RES is hypothesized to exert these effects by reversing the multidrug resistance (MDR) of the cancer cells in response to chemotherapeutic agents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reversal effect of RES on MDR in human breast cancer DOX-resistant (MCF-7/DOX) cells and investigate the underlying mechanisms of RES. The results demonstrated that RES inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7/DOX and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, RES enhanced the cytotoxicity of DOX on MCF-7/DOX cells and the reversal index of RES treatment was demonstrated to be significantly higher when compared with that of the group without RES treatment. In addition, RES was observed to reverse the MDR of the MCF-7/DOX cells and elevate the concentration of DOX in the MCF-7/DOX cells. Furthermore, RES was identified to significantly downregulate the MDR-1 gene and P-glycoprotein expression levels. Reversing MDR, via the downregulation of MDR-1 expression, was concluded to be a mechanism of RES, which enables the unique antitumor function of this polypeptide. Therefore, the present study indicated that RES may be a novel MDR reversal agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Global cancer statistics.

          The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely because of the aging and growth of the world population alongside an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, particularly smoking, in economically developing countries. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008; of these, 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths occurred in the economically developing world. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females, accounting for 23% of the total cancer cases and 14% of the cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cancer site in males, comprising 17% of the total new cancer cases and 23% of the total cancer deaths. Breast cancer is now also the leading cause of cancer death among females in economically developing countries, a shift from the previous decade during which the most common cause of cancer death was cervical cancer. Further, the mortality burden for lung cancer among females in developing countries is as high as the burden for cervical cancer, with each accounting for 11% of the total female cancer deaths. Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing world are half those seen in the developed world in both sexes, the overall cancer mortality rates are generally similar. Cancer survival tends to be poorer in developing countries, most likely because of a combination of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment. A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake. Clinicians, public health professionals, and policy makers can play an active role in accelerating the application of such interventions globally.
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            Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes.

            Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in grapes and other food products, was purified and shown to have cancer chemopreventive activity in assays representing three major stages of carcinogenesis. Resveratrol was found to act as an antioxidant and antimutagen and to induce phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (anti-initiation activity); it mediated anti-inflammatory effects and inhibited cyclooxygenase and hydroperoxidase functions (antipromotion activity); and it induced human promyelocytic leukemia cell differentiation (antiprogression activity). In addition, it inhibited the development of preneoplastic lesions in carcinogen-treated mouse mammary glands in culture and inhibited tumorigenesis in a mouse skin cancer model. These data suggest that resveratrol, a common constituent of the human diet, merits investigation as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent in humans.
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              Re-examination and further development of a precise and rapid dye method for measuring cell growth/cell kill.

              The tetrazolium salt (MTT) method involving conversion of MTT to coloured formazan by cells serving as indirect measurements of cell growth/cell kill has been reported by several groups, although technical problems have been encountered. The present investigation was undertaken in order to delineate what laboratory variables have direct influence on the sensitivity and reproducibility of the method. The pH of the extraction buffer was of the utmost importance, since it was demonstrated that a pH greater than 5 would give rise to false signals. Furthermore, modifying the composition of the extraction buffer, all formazan dye grains were solubilised, totally. A direct comparison with published methods demonstrated that only the modified method would yield 100% higher signals without increasing the background. In contrast to previous reports, it was shown that phenol red does not interfere with the measurements and no washing steps are required since all ingredients can be added subsequently. Serum proteins at concentrations up to 25% have no influence on the result. All samples can be measured in an ELISA scanner at 570 nm with little intra-assay variation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Exp Ther Med
                Exp Ther Med
                ETM
                Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
                D.A. Spandidos
                1792-0981
                1792-1015
                June 2014
                03 April 2014
                03 April 2014
                : 7
                : 6
                : 1611-1616
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350004, P.R. China
                [2 ]School of AMME, The University of Sydney, Darlington, New South Wales 2050, Australia
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr Fang Huang, Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, 88 Jiaotong Road, Fuzhou, Fujian 350004, P.R. China, E-mail: fanghuangcn@ 123456yeah.net
                Article
                etm-07-06-1611
                10.3892/etm.2014.1662
                4043584
                Copyright © 2014, Spandidos Publications

                This is an open-access article licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. The article may be redistributed, reproduced, and reused for non-commercial purposes, provided the original source is properly cited.

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                Medicine

                resveratrol, multidrug resistance, human breast cancer doxorubicin-resistant cell

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