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      Effects of Different Sex Hormones on Male Rabbit Urodynamics: An Experimental Study

      Hormone Research in Paediatrics

      S. Karger AG

      Urodynamics, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, Receptors, Bladder

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          Abstract

          Background: The effects of different sex hormones on urodynamics in female rabbits have been investigated previously. Estrogen induces an increase in bladder capacity and compliance, whereas testosterone and progesterone reduced bladder capacity and compliance. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sex hormones on bladder urodynamics in male rabbits. Methods: 5 groups were set up for the study: group I, low midline laparotomy (LML) + 0.9% NaCl; group II, LML + testosterone; group III, LML + bilateral orchiectomy (BO) + testosterone; group IV, LML + BO + progesterone, and group V, LML + BO + estrogen. Baseline urodynamic records and blood sex hormone levels were measured. In the follow-up all rabbits from each group underwent urodynamics 5, 10 and 30 days after injection. Estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels were also measured during the follow-up period. For statistical verification Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis χ<sup>2</sup> tests were used. Results: Hormone levels: Testosterone levels were found to be increased in groups II and III 5 and 10 days after the injection. Testosterone declined thereafter and returned to baseline levels on day 30. In groups IV and V progesterone and estrogen levels increased after the injection and returned to baseline levels on day 30. Urodynamics: In groups II and III testosterone increased the bladder capacity and compliance on days 5 and 10. In these groups, capacity and compliance decreased thereafter and returned to the baseline levels on day 30. These urodynamic findings correlated with the alterations in blood testosterone levels. In groups I and IV no changes were observed in bladder capacity and compliance. In group V capacity and compliance were found to be increased on day 5 after the injection and returned to baseline levels on day 30. The changes in bladder capacity were found to be statistically significant in groups II, III and V. Conclusion: In this study, after the injection of testosterone, bladder capacity and compliance increased with high blood testosterone levels in male rabbits. The most interesting finding was observed in the estrogen group, questioning the role of estrogens in males. These findings allow us to reconsider the role of sex hormones in bladder functions.

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          Most cited references 5

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          A role for oestrogens in the male reproductive system.

          Oestrogen is considered to be the 'female' hormone, whereas testosterone is considered the 'male' hormone. However, both hormones are present in both sexes. Thus sexual distinctions are not qualitative differences, but rather result from quantitative divergence in hormone concentrations and differential expressions of steroid hormone receptors. In males, oestrogen is present in low concentrations in blood, but can be extraordinarily high in semen, and as high as 250 pg ml(-1) in rete testis fluids, which is higher than serum oestradiol in the female. It is well known that male reproductive tissues express oestrogen receptors, but the role of oestrogen in male reproduction has remained unclear. Here we provide evidence of a physiological role for oestrogen in male reproductive organs. We show that oestrogen regulates the reabsorption of luminal fluid in the head of the epididymis. Disruption of this essential function causes sperm to enter the epididymis diluted, rather than concentrated, resulting in infertility. This finding raises further concern over the potential direct effects of environmental oestrogens on male reproduction and reported declines in human sperm counts.
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            The sex hormone receptors in the bladder in childhood - I: preliminary report in male subjects.

            The sex hormone receptors (oestrogen, androgen, progesterone) in the bladder were demonstrated in clinical studies by various authors in adult patients. But the presence of these receptors in childhood had not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of sex hormone receptors in the bladder of male subjects in childhood. The study included 20 bladder biopsies from a total of 15 children. Biopsies were taken during open surgery and/or cystoscopic procedures for various indications from the bladder dome, trigonum and in the region of the bladder neck. All biopsies were routinely fixed and processed for histopathological assessment and investigated immunohistochemically to determine the sex hormone receptors in the bladder. The sex hormone receptors were demonstrated with different densities and locations. In particular, sex hormone receptors were found very frequently in biopsies taken from the bladder neck. Overall receptor positivity in the specimens was 90 % for progesterone, 65 % for androgen and 25 % for oestrogen. There was no receptor expression in the deeper tissues of the bladder wall. This preliminary study demonstrated: 1. Sex hormone receptors are present in children; 2. There was a female sex hormone (progesterone, oestrogen) receptor expression in male subjects; 3. The receptors are mainly localised at the bladder neck and in transitional epithelium of the bladder wall. We think that the sex hormone receptor map may be useful in the evaluation of lower urinary tract and specially bladder neck disorders in childhood in the future.
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              Oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in the female lower urinary tract, with reference to oestrogen status

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2003
                2003
                19 November 2003
                : 60
                : 5
                : 215-220
                Affiliations
                Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
                Article
                74034 Horm Res 2003;60:215–220
                10.1159/000074034
                14614225
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 21, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Paper

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