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      Bioactive properties of Sambucus nigra L. as a functional ingredient for food and pharmaceutical industry

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          Highlights

          • Elderberry as a rich source of antioxidant compounds and natural dyes used in food industry.

          • The influence of processing on the content of antioxidants in elderberry fruit and flowers.

          • The anti-microbiological activity and healing potential of elderberry.

          • The use of elderberry raw material in fruit processing and pharmaceutical industry.

          • Toxic glycosides and lectins as compounds making all parts of elder potentially life threatening.

          Abstract

          European black elderberry naturally occurs in most of Europe and has been introduced into various parts of the world for fruit and flower production. Elderberry is rich in nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, fatty acids, organic acids, minerals, vitamins and essential oils. Elderberry also contains cyanogenic glycosides which are potentially toxic. Polyphenols, known for their free radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity, are the most important group of bioactive compounds present in elderberry in relatively high concentration. The high antioxidant activity of elderberry fruit and flowers is associated with their therapeutic properties. Elderberry has for a long time been used in folk medicine as a diaphoretic, antipyretic and diuretic agent. In recent years it was also found to have antibacterial, antiviral antidepressant and antitumour and hypoglycemic properties, and to reduce body fat and lipid concentration. Due to its health-promoting and sensory properties, elderberry is used primarily in food and pharmaceutical industry.

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          Most cited references 93

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          Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids.

          The recent explosion of interest in the bioactivity of the flavonoids of higher plants is due, at least in part, to the potential health benefits of these polyphenolic components of major dietary constituents. This review article discusses the biological properties of the flavonoids and focuses on the relationship between their antioxidant activity, as hydrogen donating free radical scavengers, and their chemical structures. This culminates in a proposed hierarchy of antioxidant activity in the aqueous phase. The cumulative findings concerning structure-antioxidant activity relationships in the lipophilic phase derive from studies on fatty acids, liposomes, and low-density lipoproteins; the factors underlying the influence of the different classes of polyphenols in enhancing their resistance to oxidation are discussed and support the contention that the partition coefficients of the flavonoids as well as their rates of reaction with the relevant radicals define the antioxidant activities in the lipophilic phase.
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            Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of phenolics in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and lingonberries.

            The antioxidant activity of phenolics in fruits of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cv. Sierra), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon cv. Ben Lear), wild chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea cv. Amberland) was determined in this study. The phenolic constituents and contents among the different berries varied considerably. Anthocyanins were found to be the main components in all these berries. Chlorogenic acid in blueberry, quercetin glycosides in cranberry and lingonberry, and caffeic acid and its derivative in chokeberry were also present in relatively high concentrations. Chlorogenic acid, peonidin 3-galactoside, cyanidin 3-galactoside, and cyanidin 3-galactoside were the most important antioxidants in blueberry, cranberry, wild chokeberry, and lingonberry, respectively. The contribution of individual phenolics to the total antioxidant capacity was generally dependent on their structure and content in the berries. Phenolics such as quercetin and cyanidin, with 3',4'-dihydroxy substituents in the B ring and conjugation between the A and B rings, had highly effective radical scavenging structures in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and lingonberries. Phenolic acids such as caffeic acid also showed high antioxidant activity, probably due to its dihydroxylation in the 3,4 positions as hydrogen donors.
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              Fruits and vegetables in the prevention of cellular oxidative damage.

               David Prior (2003)
              Numerous studies have demonstrated in vitro effects of flavonoid components from fruits and vegetables on various measures of oxidative cellular damage. However, the questions that have not been answered satisfactorily deal with the absorption/metabolism of antioxidant components in fruits and vegetables and whether they are absorbed in sufficient quantities and in a form in which effects on in vivo measures of oxidative cellular damage could be observed. The focus of this review is on clinical studies that provide information about possible in vivo changes in antioxidant status with fruit and vegetable consumption. Two classes of flavonoids as antioxidants are considered in detail (anthocyanins and flavonols). Absorption of anthocyanins appears to be much less than that of the flavonol quercetin, perhaps as little as one tenth. Relatively high dietary levels of anthocyanins appear to be necessary to observe antioxidant effects in vivo. Metabolism of cyanidin 3-glucoside and quercetin by methylation or conjugation with glucuronide or sulfate will decrease antioxidant activity. However, quercetin metabolites seem to maintain at least part of their antioxidant activity in vivo. A potential role for food flavonoids and polyphenolics as antioxidants is discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Funct Foods
                J Funct Foods
                Journal of Functional Foods
                Elsevier Ltd.
                1756-4646
                2214-9414
                22 December 2017
                January 2018
                22 December 2017
                : 40
                : 377-390
                Affiliations
                [a ]Poznan University of Life Sciences, Institute of Food Technology of Plant Origin, ul. Wojska Polskiego 31, 60-624 Poznan, Poland
                [b ]Poznan University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, ul. Wojska Polskiego 28, Poznan 60-637, Poland
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. glysiak@ 123456up.poznan.pl
                Article
                S1756-4646(17)30697-7
                10.1016/j.jff.2017.11.025
                7185606
                © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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