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Immune-Related Functional Differential Gene Expression in Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio) after Challenge with Aeromonas sobria

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      Abstract

      In order to understand the molecular basis underlying the host immune response of koi carp ( Cyprinus carpio), Illumina HiSeq TM 2000 is used to analyze the muscle and spleen transcriptome of koi carp infected with Aeromonas sobria ( A. sobria). De novo assembly of paired-end reads yielded 69,480 unigenes, of which the total length, average length, N50, and GC content are 70,120,028 bp, 1037 bp, 1793 bp, and 45.77%, respectively. Annotation is performed by comparison against various databases, yielding 42,229 (non-redundant protein sequence (NR): 60.78%), 59,255 (non-redundant nucleotide (NT): 85.28%), 35,900 (Swiss-Prot: 51.67%), 11,772 (clusters of orthologous groups (COG): 16.94%), 33,057 (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG): 47.58%), 18,764 (Gene Ontology (GO): 27.01%), and 32,085 (Interpro: 46.18%) unigenes. Comparative analysis of the expression profiles between bacterial challenge fish and control fish identifies 7749 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the muscle and 7846 DEGs from the spleen. These DEGs are further categorized with KEGG. Enrichment analysis of the DEGs and unigenes reveals major immune-related functions, including up-regulation of genes related with Toll-like receptor signaling, complement and coagulation cascades, and antigen processing and presentation. The results from RNA-Seq data are also validated and confirmed the consistency of the expression levels of seven immune-related genes after 24 h post infection with qPCR. Microsatellites (11,534), including di-to hexa nucleotide repeat motifs, are also identified. Altogether, this work provides valuable insights into the underlying immune mechanisms elicited during bacterial infection in koi carp that may aid in the future development of disease control measures in protection against A. sobria.

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        Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) projects, such as the 1000 Genomes Project, are already revolutionizing our understanding of genetic variation among individuals. However, the massive data sets generated by NGS--the 1000 Genome pilot alone includes nearly five terabases--make writing feature-rich, efficient, and robust analysis tools difficult for even computationally sophisticated individuals. Indeed, many professionals are limited in the scope and the ease with which they can answer scientific questions by the complexity of accessing and manipulating the data produced by these machines. Here, we discuss our Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK), a structured programming framework designed to ease the development of efficient and robust analysis tools for next-generation DNA sequencers using the functional programming philosophy of MapReduce. The GATK provides a small but rich set of data access patterns that encompass the majority of analysis tool needs. Separating specific analysis calculations from common data management infrastructure enables us to optimize the GATK framework for correctness, stability, and CPU and memory efficiency and to enable distributed and shared memory parallelization. We highlight the capabilities of the GATK by describing the implementation and application of robust, scale-tolerant tools like coverage calculators and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling. We conclude that the GATK programming framework enables developers and analysts to quickly and easily write efficient and robust NGS tools, many of which have already been incorporated into large-scale sequencing projects like the 1000 Genomes Project and The Cancer Genome Atlas.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan; omkarcof1@ 123456gmail.com (O.B.); r02632007@ 123456gmail.com (Y.-C.C.); shun84topaz04@ 123456gmail.com (S.M.)
            [2 ]International Degree Program of Ornamental Fish Science and Technology, International College, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
            [3 ]Southern Taiwan Fish Disease Center, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
            [4 ]Research Center for Animal Biologics, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: pc921003@ 123456gmail.com (P.-C.W.); scchen@ 123456mail.npust.edu.tw (S.-C.C.); Tel.: +886-8-770-3202 (ext. 5076) (P.-C.W. & S.-C.C.); Fax: +886-8-774-0571 (P.-C.W. & S.-C.C.)
            Journal
            Int J Mol Sci
            Int J Mol Sci
            ijms
            International Journal of Molecular Sciences
            MDPI
            1422-0067
            20 July 2018
            July 2018
            : 19
            : 7
            30036965
            6073842
            10.3390/ijms19072107
            ijms-19-02107
            © 2018 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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