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      Examining the associations between control (primary and secondary) appraisals and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in Malaysian and Australian trauma survivors


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          Little research has considered the influence of culture on control appraisals in the context of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).


          This study aimed to investigate whether cultural group moderated the relationship between control (primary and secondary) appraisals and PTSD symptoms in trauma survivors from Western (Australian) and Asian (Malaysian) cultural contexts.


          Trauma survivors (107 Australian with European cultural heritage; 121 Malaysian with Malay, Indian or Chinese cultural heritage) completed an online survey assessing PTSD symptoms and appraisals of control.


          Cultural group moderated the association between primary control and PTSD symptoms; the positive association was significant for the Australian group but not the Malaysian group. While cultural group did not moderate the association between secondary control and PTSD symptoms, there was an indirect pathway between secondary control appraisals and PTSD symptoms through interdependent self-construal for both cultural groups.


          The findings indicate that cultural group and self-construal influence the associations between different types of control appraisals and PTSD. Further research exploring the role of culture and different appraisal types in PTSD is needed.

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          Most cited references33

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          Applications of structural equation modeling in psychological research.

          This chapter presents a review of applications of structural equation modeling (SEM) published in psychological research journals in recent years. We focus first on the variety of research designs and substantive issues to which SEM can be applied productively. We then discuss a number of methodological problems and issues of concern that characterize some of this literature. Although it is clear that SEM is a powerful tool that is being used to great benefit in psychological research, it is also clear that the applied SEM literature is characterized by some chronic problems and that this literature can be considerably improved by greater attention to these issues.
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            A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder

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              Is Open Access

              Trauma and PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

              ABSTRACT Background: Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) onset-persistence is thought to vary significantly by trauma type, most epidemiological surveys are incapable of assessing this because they evaluate lifetime PTSD only for traumas nominated by respondents as their ‘worst.’ Objective: To review research on associations of trauma type with PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of epidemiological surveys that obtained representative data on trauma-specific PTSD. Method: WMH Surveys in 24 countries (n = 68,894) assessed 29 lifetime traumas and evaluated PTSD twice for each respondent: once for the ‘worst’ lifetime trauma and separately for a randomly-selected trauma with weighting to adjust for individual differences in trauma exposures. PTSD onset-persistence was evaluated with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results: In total, 70.4% of respondents experienced lifetime traumas, with exposure averaging 3.2 traumas per capita. Substantial between-trauma differences were found in PTSD onset but less in persistence. Traumas involving interpersonal violence had highest risk. Burden of PTSD, determined by multiplying trauma prevalence by trauma-specific PTSD risk and persistence, was 77.7 person-years/100 respondents. The trauma types with highest proportions of this burden were rape (13.1%), other sexual assault (15.1%), being stalked (9.8%), and unexpected death of a loved one (11.6%). The first three of these four represent relatively uncommon traumas with high PTSD risk and the last a very common trauma with low PTSD risk. The broad category of intimate partner sexual violence accounted for nearly 42.7% of all person-years with PTSD. Prior trauma history predicted both future trauma exposure and future PTSD risk. Conclusions: Trauma exposure is common throughout the world, unequally distributed, and differential across trauma types with respect to PTSD risk. Although a substantial minority of PTSD cases remits within months after onset, mean symptom duration is considerably longer than previously recognized.

                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                08 December 2023
                : 14
                : 1017566
                [1] 1Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health and School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University , Clayton, VIC, Australia
                [2] 2Department of Psychology, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia , Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
                [3] 3School of Psychology, University of New South Wales , Sydney, NSW, Australia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Bryan Raveen Nelson, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia

                Reviewed by: Wong Chin Yew, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia; Cristina Liviana Caldiroli, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy

                *Correspondence: Laura Jobson, Laura.Jobson@ 123456monash.edu
                Copyright © 2023 Reyneke, Lee, Li, Haque, Abdullah, Tan, Liddell and Jobson.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 12 August 2022
                : 23 November 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 36, Pages: 7, Words: 5030
                Brief Research Report
                Custom metadata

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                ptsd,malaysia,australia,secondary control appraisals,primary control appraisals


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