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      • Record: found
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      Phenotypic Heterogeneity Associated with Identical Mutations in Residue 870 of the Androgen Receptor

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene result in an X-linked recessive form of male pseudohermaphroditism known as the androgen-insensitivity syndrome (AIS). The alterations most frequently observed are missense or nonsense point mutations in exons 4–8 of the AR gene that affect the steroid-binding domain of the receptor in subjects with various degrees of androgen resistance. Despite the increasing number of AR mutations identified, a reliable genotype-phenotype correlation has not been established and individuals with the same molecular defect may exhibit different phenotypes. Here, we studied a patients with an AIS characterized by bilateral gynecomastia, normal male external genitalia, and normal sperm counts. Methods: Exon-specific polymerase chain reaction, single-stranded conformational polymorphism, and sequencing analysis of the subject’s AR gene were performed in addition to hormone-binding assays in skin fibroblasts from the patient. Results: A point mutation at codon 870 of the AR, changing alanine to valine, was detected. Conclusion: As AR missense mutations changing alanine 870 to valine have been previously described in 3 unrelated patients showing severe AIS phenotypes, we conclude that phenotypic heterogeneity associated to identical mutations in the AR gene is probably due to individual functional differences in AR coregulator molecules.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Testosterone inhibits estrogen-induced mammary epithelial proliferation and suppresses estrogen receptor expression.

          This study investigated the effect of sex steroids and tamoxifen on primate mammary epithelial proliferation and steroid receptor gene expression. Ovariectomized rhesus monkeys were treated with placebo, 17beta estradiol (E2) alone or in combination with progesterone (E2/P) or testosterone (E2/T), or tamoxifen for 3 days. E2 alone increased mammary epithelial proliferation by approximately sixfold (P:<0.0001) and increased mammary epithelial estrogen receptor (ERalpha) mRNA expression by approximately 50% (P:<0.0001; ERbeta mRNA was not detected in the primate mammary gland). Progesterone did not alter E2's proliferative effects, but testosterone reduced E2-induced proliferation by approximately 40% (P:<0.002) and entirely abolished E2-induced augmentation of ERalpha expression. Tamoxifen had a significant agonist effect in the ovariectomized monkey, producing a approximately threefold increase in mammary epithelial proliferation (P:<0.01), but tamoxifen also reduced ERalpha expression below placebo level. Androgen receptor (AR) mRNA was detected in mammary epithelium by in situ hybridization. AR mRNA levels were not altered by E2 alone but were significantly reduced by E2/T and tamoxifen treatment. Because combined E2/T and tamoxifen had similar effects on mammary epithelium, we investigated the regulation of known sex steroid-responsive mRNAs in the primate mammary epithelium. E2 alone had no effect on apolipoprotein D (ApoD) or IGF binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) expression, but E2/T and tamoxifen treatment groups both demonstrated identical alterations in these mRNAs (ApoD was decreased and IGFBP5 was increased). These observations showing androgen-induced down-regulation of mammary epithelial proliferation and ER expression suggest that combined estrogen/androgen hormone replacement therapy might reduce the risk of breast cancer associated with estrogen replacement. In addition, these novel findings on tamoxifen's androgen-like effects on primate mammary epithelial sex steroid receptor expression suggest that tamoxifen's protective action on mammary gland may involve androgenic effects.
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            • Record: found
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            Androgen receptor defects: historical, clinical, and molecular perspectives [published erratum appears in Endocr Rev 1995 Aug;16(4):546]

             C Quigley (1995)
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              Androgen-insensitivity syndrome as a possible coactivator disease.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2002
                2002
                15 May 2002
                : 57
                : 3-4
                : 90-93
                Affiliations
                aServicio de Genética, Hospital General de México, Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, y bDepartamento de Biologia de la Reproducción, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México, D.F., México
                Article
                57958 Horm Res 2002;57:90–93
                10.1159/000057958
                12006704
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 24, Pages: 4
                Categories
                Original Paper

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