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      Platelet Activation Markers in Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome

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          Abstract

          Background/Aim: Enhanced platelet reactivity may play a significant role in the genesis of the hypercoagulable state of nephrotic syndrome. However, the role of platelet function testing in nephrosis is controversial, partly because the methods used to assess platelet function (platelet aggregation and immunoassays of plasma β-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4) have such marked methodological problems. In the present study, we evaluated several tests assessing platelet function in 18 adult patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome and normal renal function. Methods: Platelet function was assessed by measurement of plasma β-thromboglobulin (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA), plasma P-selectin (ELISA), circulating platelets exposing the activation-dependent antigens P-selectin (CD62P) and lysosomal GP53 (CD63) (flow cytometry), and by aggregation response to agonists such as ADP and collagen. Results were compared to those obtained in a group of 16 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. Results: Levels of plasma β-thromboglobulin (p = 0.001), plasma P-selectin (p < 0.001), and CD62P/CD63-positive platelets (p < 0.001 for both) were increased in nephrotic patients as compared to healthy controls. Platelet hyperaggregability in vitro was found in 13/18 patients. The reproducibility of platelet activation markers, as assessed by blood sample collection a week later from all patients, was found to be higher for plasma P-selectin (Spearman correlation coefficient, R = 0.99) and circulating activated platelets (CD62P: R = 0.97; CD63: R = 0.96) than for plasma β-thromboglobulin (R = 0.78). Conclusions: Pronounced platelet activation takes place in nephrotic syndrome and may contribute to the hypercoagulability of nephrosis. Whole blood flow cytometry assay of platelet activation and plasma P-selectin assay may represent useful tests to assess the hypercoagulable state in nephrotic patients.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Serum Levels of Soluble Adhesion Molecules in Chronic Renal Failure and Dialysis Patients

          Besides cell-bound adhesion molecules, which are of fundamental importance to a large number of physiological and pathological processes, soluble forms of adhesion molecules have been detected in the circulating blood in recent years. Circulating soluble adhesion molecules appear to be biologically active, and raised levels have been reported in a variety of disorders. In the present study, we used ELISA to measure the serum levels of four soluble adhesion molecules in 23 undialyzed patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), 13 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 17 on chronic hemodialysis (HD) and 18 healthy controls having a similar mean and distribution of ages. The investigated soluble (s) molecules included intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), sE-selectin and sP-selectin. sICAM-1 was found to be elevated in patients with CRF (p < 0.05), on CAPD (p < 0.02) and HD (p < 0.0001) compared with the controls but levels did not differ between the three patient groups. The higher sVCAM-1 values found in CRF (p < 0.02), CAPD (p < 0.05) and HD (p < 0.0001) as compared to controls again failed to differentiate the three groups of patients. Soluble E-selectin was also raised in the three groups (p < 0.0001) with no difference between them. Increased sP-selectin was found in CRF (p < 0.05), CAPD (p < 0.02) and in HD patients (p < 0.0001) compared to controls, and levels in HD were significantly higher (p < 0.02) than in CRF patients. Predialysis serum molecule levels did not differ between HD patients treated with cuprophan or with polyacrylonitrile dialyzers. HD sessions with both dialyzers had no effect on sICAM-1, while a decrease (p < 0.02) in sP-selectin was found after dialysis with cuprophan. In undialyzed patients with CRF, regression analysis showed a strong linear correlation between serum creatinine and serum levels of each soluble molecule. These results demonstrate that serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin are elevated in both undialyzed patients with CRF and patients on CAPD or HD. The elevated serum levels of these proteins probably reflect inadequate clearance as well as enhanced synthesis/release.
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            Hypothesis: is soluble P-selectin a new marker of platelet activation?

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              A monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay for human GMP-140/P-selectin

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2002
                July 2002
                01 July 2002
                : 91
                : 3
                : 424-430
                Affiliations
                aInstitute of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, and bBiostatistical Laboratory, G. D’Annunzio University, and cBlood Transfusion Service, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti, Italy
                Article
                64282 Nephron 2002;91:424–430
                10.1159/000064282
                12119472
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 43, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/64282
                Categories
                Original Paper

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