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      Non-native spiders change assemblages of Hawaiian forest fragment kipuka over space and time

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      NeoBiota

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          We assessed how assemblages of spiders were structured in small Hawaiian tropical forest fragments (Hawaiian, kipuka) within a matrix of previous lava flows, over both space (sampling kipuka of different sizes) and time (comparison with a similar study from 1998). Standardized hand-collection by night was carried out in May 2016. In total, 702 spiders were collected, representing 6 families and 25 (morpho-)species. We found that the number of individuals, but not species richness, was highly correlated with the area of sampled forest fragments, suggesting that kipuka act as separate habitat islands for these predatory arthropods. Species richness was significantly lower in the lava matrix outside the kipuka compared to the kipuka habitats, although there was no statistical difference in species composition between the two habitats, largely because of similarity of non-native species in both habitats. Over the last 20 years, the abundance of non-native spider species substantially increased in both kipuka and lava habitats, in marked contrast to the vegetation that has remained more intact. With endemicity of terrestrial arthropods reaching over 95% in native forests, non-native predatory species present a critical challenge to the endemic fauna.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Undersampling bias: the null hypothesis for singleton species in tropical arthropod surveys.

          1. Frequency of singletons - species represented by single individuals - is anomalously high in most large tropical arthropod surveys (average, 32%). 2. We sampled 5965 adult spiders of 352 species (29% singletons) from 1 ha of lowland tropical moist forest in Guyana. 3. Four common hypotheses (small body size, male-biased sex ratio, cryptic habits, clumped distributions) failed to explain singleton frequency. Singletons are larger than other species, not gender-biased, share no particular lifestyle, and are not clumped at 0.25-1 ha scales. 4. Monte Carlo simulation of the best-fit lognormal community shows that the observed data fit a random sample from a community of approximately 700 species and 1-2 million individuals, implying approximately 4% true singleton frequency. 5. Undersampling causes systematic negative bias of species richness, and should be the default null hypothesis for singleton frequencies. 6. Drastically greater sampling intensity in tropical arthropod inventory studies is required to yield realistic species richness estimates. 7. The lognormal distribution deserves greater consideration as a richness estimator when undersampling bias is severe.
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            Biodiversity dynamics in isolated island communities: interaction between natural and human-mediated processes.

            The flora and fauna of oceanic islands have inspired research since the early scientific explorations. Islands can be considered 'nature's test tubes'- simple systems with multiple replicates. Our research has used the simplicity of island systems to understand ecological community dynamics and to compare the properties of island communities with those in more complex mainland systems. Here, we present three topics: (i) current patterns of biodiversity on isolated islands of the Pacific; (ii) current patterns of disturbance and invasion on islands; and (iii) future trajectories inferred from these patterns. We examine features of islands (in particular, topography and isolation) that have allowed for given levels and distribution of endemicity. The extent to which island communities are impacted by, resist or accommodate disturbance and/or invasions by nonindigenous species appears to be dictated to a large extent by properties of the native communities and how these communities were originally assembled. Accordingly, patterns of disturbance and invasion are very different for high (montane) islands that are extremely isolated compared to those that are nearer to a source of natural migrants. As with all biotas, those on islands are dynamic entities. However, the unique aspect of islands is their isolation, and extreme isolation has largely been lost over the course of the last few centuries due to the development of transportation routes. We argue that such a modified dynamic will affect the future of the biota and the processes that gave rise to the biota. Specifically for isolated habitats, ecological processes will become increasingly more likely to generate biodiversity than evolutionary processes which have been relatively more important in the past. In the short term, island biotas and other similar biotas that occur in montane habitats may fare well as species are often abundant locally in the habitat to which they are indigenous, and may demonstrate considerable resistance and resilience to invasion. However, island biotas - and other biotas that show high local endemism - will likely not fare well in the face of prolonged disturbance. The biotas in these areas generally display a relatively low dispersal capacity; therefore, under conditions of long-term habitat modification, isolated biotas are likely to be swamped by non-natives, which - simply because of random processes and higher propagule pressure - will move more readily into available habitats. Thus, despite the importance of incorporating the evolutionary process into conservation efforts, we must also be careful to evaluate the likely form that the processes will take when the context (specifically, extent of isolation) has been highly modified.
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              Patch area, population density and the scaling of migration rates: the resource concentration hypothesis revisited

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NeoBiota
                NB
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2488
                1619-0033
                March 23 2020
                March 23 2020
                : 55
                : 1-9
                Article
                10.3897/neobiota.55.48498
                © 2020

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