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      Effect of CO 2-induced seawater acidification on growth, photosynthesis and inorganic carbon acquisition of the harmful bloom-forming marine microalga, Karenia mikimotoi

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          Abstract

          Karenia mikimotoi is a widespread, toxic and non-calcifying dinoflagellate, which can release and produce ichthyotoxins and hemolytic toxins affecting the food web within the area of its bloom. Shifts in the physiological characteristics of K. mikimotoi due to CO 2-induced seawater acidification could alter the occurrence, severity and impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here, we investigated the effects of elevated pCO 2 on the physiology of K. mikimotoi. Using semi-continuous cultures under controlled laboratory conditions, growth, photosynthesis and inorganic carbon acquisition were determined over 4–6 week incubations at ambient (390ppmv) and elevated pCO 2 levels (1000 ppmv and 2000 ppmv). pH-drift and inhibitor-experiments suggested that K. mikimotoi was capable of acquiring HCO 3 -, and that the utilization of HCO 3 - was predominantly mediated by anion-exchange proteins, but that HCO 3 - dehydration catalyzed by external carbonic anhydrase (CA ext) only played a minor role in K. mikimotoi. Even though down-regulated CO 2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) and enhanced gross photosynthetic O 2 evolution were observed under 1000 ppmv CO 2 conditions, the saved energy did not stimulate growth of K. mikimotoi under 1000 ppmv CO 2, probably due to the increased dark respiration. However, significantly higher growth and photosynthesis [in terms of photosynthetic oxygen evolution, effective quantum Yield (Yield), photosynthetic efficiency (α), light saturation point (E k) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity] were observed under 2000 ppmv CO 2 conditions. Furthermore, elevated pCO 2 increased the photo-inhibition rate of photosystem II (β) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) at high light. We suggest that the energy saved through the down-regulation of CCMs might lead to the additional light stress and photo-damage. Therefore, the response of this species to elevated CO 2 conditions will be determined by more than regulation and efficiency of CCMs.

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          Most cited references 68

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          Oceanography: anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH.

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            Photosynthesis and Calcification at Cellular, Organismal and Community Levels in Coral Reefs: A Review on Interactions and Control by Carbonate Chemistry

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              Rapid light curves: A powerful tool to assess photosynthetic activity

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Formal analysis
                Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Writing – original draft
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                16 August 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 8
                Affiliations
                Department of Marine Ecology, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China
                University of Connecticut, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-16-28283
                10.1371/journal.pone.0183289
                5558969
                28813504
                © 2017 Hu et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 4, Pages: 19
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 41476091
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: NSFC-Shangdong Joint Fund
                Award ID: U1406403
                Award Recipient :
                This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (41476091) and NSFC-Shangdong Joint Fund (U1406403).
                Categories
                Research Article
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Chemical Compounds
                Carbon Dioxide
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Plant Biochemistry
                Photosynthesis
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Biochemistry
                Photosynthesis
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Plant Biochemistry
                Photosynthesis
                Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase Oxygenase
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Biochemistry
                Photosynthesis
                Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase Oxygenase
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Plants
                Algae
                Phytoplankton
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Plankton
                Phytoplankton
                Physical Sciences
                Physics
                Particle Physics
                Elementary Particles
                Photons
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Marine Ecology
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Marine Ecology
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Marine Biology
                Marine Ecology
                Earth Sciences
                Marine and Aquatic Sciences
                Marine Biology
                Marine Ecology
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Aquatic Environments
                Marine Environments
                Sea Water
                Earth Sciences
                Marine and Aquatic Sciences
                Aquatic Environments
                Marine Environments
                Sea Water
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Protists
                Dinoflagellates
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper.

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