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      Daily Protein Intake and Patient Outcomes in Severe Acute Kidney Injury: Findings of the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level of Replacement Therapy (RENAL) Trial

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          Abstract

          Background and Aims: We aimed to examine the association between dailyprotein intake (DPI) and outcomes in patients from the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level (RENAL) trial. Methods: We analyzed the association between DPI and clinical outcomes using multivariable logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards models and time-adjusted analysis. Results: During ICU stay, mean DPI was 37.6 g/day among survivors and 37.7 g/day among nonsurvivors (p = 0.96; DPI of 0.5 g/kg/day). Only 159 (10.9%) of the patients received a mean DPI of >1 g/kg. Patients with a DPI above the median had a 43.1% mortality compared with 46.1% for a DPI below the median (p = 0.25). On multivariate analysis, a lower DPI was not associated with increased odds ratios for 90-day mortality or any secondary outcomes. Cox proportional hazards models and time-adjusted analysis confirmed these findings. Conclusions: In the RENAL study, mean DPI was low. Within the confines of such low DPI, greater amounts of DPI were not independently associated with improved clinical outcomes. Video Journal Club “Cappuccino with Claudio Ronco” at www.karger.com/?doi=363175.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.).

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            The relationship between nutritional intake and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients: results of an international multicenter observational study.

            The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the amount of energy and protein administered and clinical outcomes, and the extent to which pre-morbid nutritional status influenced this relationship. We conducted an observational cohort study of nutrition practices in 167 intensive care units (ICUs) across 21 [corrected] countries. Patient demographics were collected, and the type and amount of nutrition received were recorded daily for a maximum of 12 days. Patients were followed prospectively to determine 60-day mortality and ventilator-free days (VFDs). We used body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) as a marker of nutritional status prior to ICU admission. Regression models were developed to evaluate the relationship between nutrition received and 60-day mortality and VFDs, and to examine how BMI modifies this relationship. Data were collected on 2,772 mechanically ventilated patients who received an average of 1,034 kcal/day and 47 g protein/day. An increase of 1,000 cal per day was associated with reduced mortality [odds ratio for 60-day mortality 0.76; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.61-0.95, p = 0.014] and an increased number of VFDs (3.5 VFD, 95% CI 1.2-5.9, p = 0.003). The effect of increased calories associated with lower mortality was observed in patients with a BMI or =35 with no benefit for patients with a BMI 25 to or =35.
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              Optimisation of energy provision with supplemental parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a randomised controlled clinical trial.

              Enteral nutrition (EN) is recommended for patients in the intensive-care unit (ICU), but it does not consistently achieve nutritional goals. We assessed whether delivery of 100% of the energy target from days 4 to 8 in the ICU with EN plus supplemental parenteral nutrition (SPN) could optimise clinical outcome. This randomised controlled trial was undertaken in two centres in Switzerland. We enrolled patients on day 3 of admission to the ICU who had received less than 60% of their energy target from EN, were expected to stay for longer than 5 days, and to survive for longer than 7 days. We calculated energy targets with indirect calorimetry on day 3, or if not possible, set targets as 25 and 30 kcal per kg of ideal bodyweight a day for women and men, respectively. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive EN or SPN. The primary outcome was occurrence of nosocomial infection after cessation of intervention (day 8), measured until end of follow-up (day 28), analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00802503. We randomly assigned 153 patients to SPN and 152 to EN. 30 patients discontinued before the study end. Mean energy delivery between day 4 and 8 was 28 kcal/kg per day (SD 5) for the SPN group (103% [SD 18%] of energy target), compared with 20 kcal/kg per day (7) for the EN group (77% [27%]). Between days 9 and 28, 41 (27%) of 153 patients in the SPN group had a nosocomial infection compared with 58 (38%) of 152 patients in the EN group (hazard ratio 0·65, 95% CI 0·43-0·97; p=0·0338), and the SPN group had a lower mean number of nosocomial infections per patient (-0·42 [-0·79 to -0·05]; p=0·0248). Individually optimised energy supplementation with SPN starting 4 days after ICU admission could reduce nosocomial infections and should be considered as a strategy to improve clinical outcome in patients in the ICU for whom EN is insufficient. Foundation Nutrition 2000Plus, ICU Quality Funds, Baxter, and Fresenius Kabi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2014
                October 2014
                23 August 2014
                : 37
                : 4
                : 325-334
                Affiliations
                aAustin Hospital, Heidelberg, Vic., bThe Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Vic., cRoyal Northshore Hospital, St. Leonards, N.S.W., dNepean Hospital, Penrith, N.S.W., eSt. George Hospital, Kogarah, N.S.W., and fThe George Institute, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia; gDepartment of Critical Care Medicine and hCardiovascular Intensive Care Unit, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
                Author notes
                *Prof. Rinaldo Bellomo, ANZICS CTG, Level 3, 10 Ievers Street, Carlton, VIC 3053 (Australia), E-Mail Rinaldo.bellomo@austin.org.au
                Article
                363175 Blood Purif 2014;37:325-334
                10.1159/000363175
                25171270
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Paper

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