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      Simultaneous Hybrid <X_Underline>CO</X_Underline>ronary Revascularization Using Totally Endoscopic Left Internal <X_Underline>M</X_Underline>ammary Artery <X_Underline>B</X_Underline>ypass Grafting and Placement of Rapamyc<X_Underline>IN</X_Underline> Eluting Stents in the S<X_Underline>A</X_Underline>me Interven<X_Underline>TION</X_Underline>al Session

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          Objectives: Hybrid coronary revascularization procedures apply minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for treatment of multivessel coronary artery disease. For logistic reasons simultaneous procedures would be desirable. In a pilot study the feasibility of simultaneous robotic totally endoscopic CABG and PCI using drug eluting stents was assessed. Patients and Methods: Five patients were scheduled to undergo simultaneous combined coronary inter- vention. A left internal mammary artery bypass graft was placed to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) in a completely endoscopic fashion using the daVinci<sup>TM</sup> telemanipulation system. PCI was carried out in the surgical operating room with the GE OEC9800 mobile coronary angiography C-arm. Rapamycin coated Cypher™ stents were placed into stenotic non-LAD targets. Results: The procedure was feasible in 4 patients, one patient was converted to a double CABG operation. There were no significant postoperative clinical complications and patients were discharged from intensive care unit and the hospital after 19 (18–61) hours and 6 (5–7) days respectively. At 6 months postoperatively all patients are free from angina. Conclusion: We conclude that simultaneous robotic totally endoscopic left internal mammary artery to LAD placement and PCI to non-LAD targets using drug eluting stents is feasible in one session.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery.

          Preliminary reports of studies involving simple coronary lesions indicate that a sirolimus-eluting stent significantly reduces the risk of restenosis after percutaneous coronary revascularization. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial comparing a sirolimus-eluting stent with a standard stent in 1058 patients at 53 centers in the United States who had a newly diagnosed lesion in a native coronary artery. The coronary disease in these patients was complex because of the frequent presence of diabetes (in 26 percent of patients), the high percentage of patients with longer lesions (mean, 14.4 mm), and small vessels (mean, 2.80 mm). The primary end point was failure of the target vessel (a composite of death from cardiac causes, myocardial infarction, and repeated percutaneous or surgical revascularization of the target vessel) within 270 days. The rate of failure of the target vessel was reduced from 21.0 percent with a standard stent to 8.6 percent with a sirolimus-eluting stent (P<0.001)--a reduction that was driven largely by a decrease in the frequency of the need for revascularization of the target lesion (16.6 percent in the standard-stent group vs. 4.1 percent in the sirolimus-stent group, P<0.001). The frequency of neointimal hyperplasia within the stent was also decreased in the group that received sirolimus-eluting stents, as assessed by both angiography and intravascular ultrasonography. Subgroup analyses revealed a reduction in the rates of angiographic restenosis and target-lesion revascularization in all subgroups examined. In this randomized clinical trial involving patients with complex coronary lesions, the use of a sirolimus-eluting stent had a consistent treatment effect, reducing the rates of restenosis and associated clinical events in all subgroups analyzed. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Integrated left small thoracotomy and angioplasty for multivessel coronary artery revascularisation

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              Robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass: program development and learning curve issues.

              The introduction of new procedures in heart surgery is a critical phase that includes learning curves and the risk of increased mortality or morbidity. Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting using robotic techniques represents such an innovative procedure. The aim of this report is to demonstrate the safe introduction of totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting using a stepwise and modular approach. From June 2001 until December 2002, 50 procedures were performed using the da Vinci telemanipulator system. After baseline training the following procedure modules were carried out in a stepwise manner: robotically assisted endoscopic left internal thoracic artery harvesting and completion of the procedure as conventional coronary artery bypass grafting, minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass, or off-pump coronary artery bypass (n = 19), robotically assisted suturing of left internal thoracic artery to left anterior descending anastomoses during conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 15), totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting on the arrested heart using remote access perfusion and aortic endocclusion coronary bypass grafting (n = 15). One patient was excluded intraoperatively from a robotic procedure due to pleural adhesions. A significant learning curve was observed for left internal thoracic artery takedown time, y(min) = 181 - 39 x ln(x) (x = procedure number) (P <.001), and total operative time in totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting, y(min) = 595 - 87 x ln(x) x = (procedure number) (P =.028). The conversion rate in totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting was 2/15. Intensive care unit stay correlated significantly with total operative time (r =.427, P =.002). There was no hospital mortality. Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting can be safely implemented into a heart surgery program. Learning curves are steep for robotic left internal thoracic artery takedown and for performance of totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting. Long operative times translate into prolonged intensive care unit stay in specific cases but not into increased mortality.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                April 2008
                31 October 2007
                : 110
                : 2
                : 92-95
                Departments of Cardiac Surgery, Cardiology, and Cardiac Anesthesiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria
                110486 Cardiology 2008;110:92–95
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Tables: 1, References: 14, Pages: 4
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