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      Current and Innovated Managements for Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorders: An Overview

      , ,
      Journal of Clinical Medicine
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Autoimmune bullous skin disorders are a group of disorders characterized by the formation of numerous blisters and erosions on the skin and/or the mucosal membrane, arising from autoantibodies against the intercellular adhesion molecules and the structural proteins. They can be classified into intraepithelial or subepithelial autoimmune bullous dermatoses based on the location of the targeted antigens. These dermatoses are extremely debilitating and fatal in certain cases, depending on the degree of cutaneous and mucosal involvement. Effective treatments should be implemented promptly. Glucocorticoids serve as the first-line approach due to their rapid onset of therapeutic effects and remission of the acute phase. Nonetheless, long-term applications may lead to major adverse effects that outweigh the benefits. Hence, other adjuvant therapies are mandatory to minimize the potential harm and ameliorate the quality of life. Herein, we summarize the current therapeutic strategies and introduce promising therapies for intractable autoimmune bullous diseases.

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          Reengineering chimeric antigen receptor T cells for targeted therapy of autoimmune disease

          Ideally, therapy for autoimmune diseases should eliminate pathogenic autoimmune cells while sparing protective immunity, but feasible strategies for such an approach have been elusive. Here, we show that in the antibody-mediated autoimmune disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV), autoantigen-based chimeric immunoreceptors can direct T cells to kill autoreactive B lymphocytes through the specificity of the B cell receptor (BCR). We engineered human T cells to express a chimeric autoantibody receptor (CAAR), consisting of the PV autoantigen, desmoglein (Dsg) 3, fused to CD137-CD3 ζ signaling domains. Dsg3 CAAR-T cells exhibit specific cytotoxicity against cells expressing anti-Dsg3 BCRs in vitro and expand, persist, and specifically eliminate Dsg3-specific B cells in vivo. CAAR-T cells may provide an effective and universal strategy for specific targeting of autoreactive B cells in antibody-mediated autoimmune disease.
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            First-line rituximab combined with short-term prednisone versus prednisone alone for the treatment of pemphigus (Ritux 3): a prospective, multicentre, parallel-group, open-label randomised trial.

            High doses of corticosteroids are considered the standard treatment for pemphigus. Because long-term corticosteroid treatment can cause severe and even life-threatening side-effects in patients with this disease, we assessed whether first-line use of rituximab as adjuvant therapy could improve the proportion of patients achieving complete remission off-therapy, compared with corticosteroid treatment alone, while decreasing treatment side-effects of corticosteroids.
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              Elevated serum B lymphocyte stimulator levels in patients with systemic immune-based rheumatic diseases.

              To determine whether serum levels of B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) are elevated in patients with systemic immune-based rheumatic diseases and correlate with serum Ig levels and/or autoantibody titers. Sera from 185 patients with various systemic immune-based rheumatic diseases (95 with systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], 67 with rheumatoid arthritis [RA], 23 with other diagnoses) were assayed for BLyS and Ig. In 7 patients who required arthrocentesis of a swollen knee, coincident serum and synovial fluid samples were assayed for BLyS. Medical charts were retrospectively reviewed for elevated autoantibody titers and proteinuria within a 1-month period before or after collection of sera for BLyS and Ig determination. Sera concurrently collected from 48 normal healthy subjects served as controls. Serum BLyS levels were elevated in 38 of 185 patients (21%) and correlated significantly with serum IgG levels. Serum BLyS levels did not correlate with the patients' age, sex, race, or medications, but correlated positively with anti-double-stranded DNA antibody titers among SLE patients and with rheumatoid factor titers among seropositive RA patients. In contrast, serum BLyS levels correlated inversely with nephrotic-range proteinuria among SLE patients. In every case tested, BLyS levels in clinically inflamed synovial fluids were greater than those in simultaneously obtained sera. BLyS may be an important factor in driving polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and elevated autoantibody titers in patients with systemic immune-based rheumatic diseases. Local production of BLyS in the joints may contribute to joint pathology. Patients with elevated serum BLyS levels may be ideal candidates for therapeutic targeting of BLyS.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                JCMOHK
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                JCM
                MDPI AG
                2077-0383
                June 2022
                June 19 2022
                : 11
                : 12
                : 3528
                Article
                10.3390/jcm11123528
                9224787
                35743598
                15169e13-3da2-4585-bd43-ecc68f8c5b7b
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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