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      The Future of Nanotechnology in Plant Pathology

      1 , 2
      Annual Review of Phytopathology
      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          Engineered nanoparticles are materials between 1 and 100 nm and exist as metalloids, metallic oxides, nonmetals, and carbon nanomaterials and as functionalized dendrimers, liposomes, and quantum dots. Their small size, large surface area, and high reactivity have enabled their use as bactericides/ fungicides and nanofertilizers. Nanoparticles can be designed as biosensors for plant disease diagnostics and as delivery vehicles for genetic material, probes, and agrichemicals. In the past decade, reports of nanotechnology in phytopathology have grown exponentially. Nanomaterials have been integrated into disease management strategies and diagnostics and as molecular tools. Most reports summarized herein are directed toward pathogen inhibition using metalloid/metallic oxide nanoparticles as bactericides/fungicides and as nanofertilizers to enhance health. The use of nanoparticles as biosensors in plant disease diagnostics is also reviewed. As global demand for food production escalates against a changing climate, nanotechnology could sustainably mitigate many challenges in disease management by reducing chemical inputs and promoting rapid detection of pathogens.

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          Most cited references99

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          Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles: design, synthesis, and biomedical applications.

          The combination of nanotechnology and molecular biology has developed into an emerging research area: nanobiotechnology. Magnetic nanoparticles are well-established nanomaterials that offer controlled size, ability to be manipulated externally, and enhancement of contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As a result, these nanoparticles could have many applications in biology and medicine, including protein purification, drug delivery, and medical imaging. Because of the potential benefits of multimodal functionality in biomedical applications, researchers would like to design and fabricate multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles. Currently, there are two strategies to fabricate magnetic nanoparticle-based multifunctional nanostructures. The first, molecular functionalization, involves attaching antibodies, proteins, and dyes to the magnetic nanoparticles. The other method integrates the magnetic nanoparticles with other functional nanocomponents, such as quantum dots (QDs) or metallic nanoparticles. Because they can exhibit several features synergistically and deliver more than one function simultaneously, such multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles could have unique advantages in biomedical applications. In this Account, we review examples of the design and biomedical application of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles. After their conjugation with proper ligands, antibodies, or proteins, the biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles exhibit highly selective binding. These results indicate that such nanoparticles could be applied to biological medical problems such as protein purification, bacterial detection, and toxin decorporation. The hybrid nanostructures, which combine magnetic nanoparticles with other nanocomponents, exhibit paramagnetism alongside features such as fluorescence or enhanced optical contrast. Such structures could provide a platform for enhanced medical imaging and controlled drug delivery. We expect that the combination of unique structural characteristics and integrated functions of multicomponent magnetic nanoparticles will attract increasing research interest and could lead to new opportunities in nanomedicine.
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            Environmental behavior and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to algae, plants, and fungi.

            Developments in nanotechnology are leading to a rapid proliferation of new materials that are likely to become a source of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to the environment, where their possible ecotoxicological impacts remain unknown. The surface properties of ENPs are of essential importance for their aggregation behavior, and thus for their mobility in aquatic and terrestrial systems and for their interactions with algae, plants and, fungi. Interactions of ENPs with natural organic matter have to be considered as well, as those will alter the ENPs aggregation behavior in surface waters or in soils. Cells of plants, algae, and fungi possess cell walls that constitute a primary site for interaction and a barrier for the entrance of ENPs. Mechanisms allowing ENPs to pass through cell walls and membranes are as yet poorly understood. Inside cells, ENPs might directly provoke alterations of membranes and other cell structures and molecules, as well as protective mechanisms. Indirect effects of ENPs depend on their chemical and physical properties and may include physical restraints (clogging effects), solubilization of toxic ENP compounds, or production of reactive oxygen species. Many questions regarding the bioavailability of ENPs, their uptake by algae, plants, and fungi and the toxicity mechanisms remain to be elucidated.
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              Nanoparticulate material delivery to plants

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Phytopathology
                Annu. Rev. Phytopathol.
                Annual Reviews
                0066-4286
                1545-2107
                August 25 2018
                August 25 2018
                : 56
                : 1
                : 111-133
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Plant Pathology and Ecology, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA;
                [2 ]Department of Analytical Chemistry, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-050108
                15186795-8785-4493-b7fb-bcd1ab2d18dc
                © 2018

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