01 May 2020
Objective To investigate the population density of important vectors in rural Sanya, Hainan, as well as to analyze the correlation between the population densityand the effectiveness of the Rural Settlements Cleanup Project.
Methods From June to November 2019, the population density data was obtained by visual inspection referring to improved related Chinese standards once a month. The villages or farm groups under four districts and an ecological zone in Sanya were randomly selected. The population density information was checked and recorded around public areas of villages or farm groups and courtyards of peasant households, as mosquito breeding sites, water with mosquito-larvae, adult mosquitoes, fly breeding sites, adult flies, rodent habitats, rodent tracks, and cockroach tracks. Next, the correlation between evaluation scores of the Rural Settlements Cleanup Project and population density of vectors was calculated and analyzed.
Results Vector populations were investigated from a total of 163 villages / farm groups in Sanya. Fly population (adult flies: 15.82 ±22.24; breeding sites: 4.45±3.21) was the largest, followed by rodent population (habitats: 2.97±6.58; tracks: 2.79±2.88) and mosquito population (adult mosquitoes: 1.69±6.40; breeding sites: 2.87±2.53;water with mosquito-larvae: 2.33±2.82), and cockroach population(tracks: 0.16 ± 0.48) was the smallest. From June to November, the overall vector populations showed a decrease trend, whereas the number of fly breeding sites exhibited no significant change. The number of rodent tracks and habitats decreased and then increased. In this study, many types of vector breeding sites and habitats in rural environment were discovered with distinct tropical local characteristics. There was a negative correlation between the indices reflecting vector population density and the effectiveness of the Rural Settlements Cleanup Project in at least three months, and four of them (mosquito breeding sites, fly breeding sites, adult flies and rodent tracks) had a negative correlation with the effectiveness in five months. Out of the eight indices of vector population density investigated in this study, except for fly breeding sites and rodent habitats ( P>0.05), six indices had a significant reduction after the Rural Settlements Cleanup Project, as mosquito breeding sites ( P<0.01), water with mosquito-larvae ( P=0.04), adult mosquitoes ( P=0.01), adult flies ( P<0.01), rodent tracks ( P =0.04) and cockroach tracks ( P=0.04).
Conclusion The level of vector population density was high in rural environment of Sanya, which had a significant decrease after environmental improvement.
摘要： 目的 调查海南三亚农村重要病媒生物的种群密度, 分析其密度变化与农村人居环境整治成效的相关性。 方法 于 2019 年 6 —11 月, 参考国家相关标准, 对三亚市 4 个行政区和 1 个生态区管委会分别随机选取自然村或农场 队的公共区域、农户庭院和房前屋后以目测法调查蚊幼孳生地、蚊幼阳性积水、成蚊数, 蝇类孳生地、成蝇数, 鼠类栖息 地、鼠迹数及蟑迹数。结合该自然村或农场队的人居环境评分, 分析其与病媒生物种群密度的相关性。 结果 共调查 三亚市 163 个自然村/农场队次的病媒生物种群数量, 其中成蝇数 (15.82±22.24) 只、蝇孳生地数 (4.45±3.21) 处的种群数 量相对较大, 其次是鼠类栖息地数 (2.97±6.58) 处、鼠迹数 (2.79±2.88) 只和成蚊数 (1.69±6.40) 只、蚊孳生地数 (2.87± 2.53) 处、阳性积水数 (2.33±2.82) 处, 蜚蠊蟑迹数 (0.16±0.48) 只数量较少。从 6—11 月, 病媒生物种群数量整体呈下降 趋势。而蝇类孳生地数未见明显改变, 鼠迹数和鼠类栖息地数量先下降后上升。本研究观察到三亚农村的病媒生物 孳生和栖息地类型很多, 具有明显的热带地方特色。相关性分析显示, 三亚市农村蚊幼孳生地数、蝇类孳生地、成蝇 数、鼠迹数与整治成效, 在 5 个月中呈负相关关系；本研究调查的病媒生物种群数量的 8 个指标中, 除蝇类孳生地和鼠 类栖息地外 ( P>0.05), 蚊幼孳生地 ( P<0.01)、蚊幼阳性积水 ( P=0.04)、成蚊数量 ( P=0.01)、成蝇数量 ( P<0.01)、鼠迹数 ( P =0.04) 和蟑迹数 ( P=0.04) 在农村人居环境和村庄清洁整治后, 均有明显降低。 结论 三亚农村环境中的病媒生物种群 密度高, 通过农村人居环境整治, 病媒生物种群密度明显下降。