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      Assessment of individual carotenoid and vitamin A dietary intake in overweight and obese Dominican subjects Translated title: Valoración de la ingesta individualizada de carotenoides y de vitamina A en sujetos dominicanos con sobrepeso y obesidad


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          Abstract Introduction: Carotenoids are plant pigment with important biological activities in humans, such as provitamin-A among others. At present, there are no individual carotenoid intake data in the Dominican population, which is at risk of vitamin A deficiency and has an important percentage of overweight and obese individuals. Objective: To assess the individual components of vitamin A intake (retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin) and that of other relevant dietary carotenoids like lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene of Dominican daily food intake. Methods: Fifty overweigth and obese subjects (22-69 y). Individual carotenoid intake, from whole diet and from the ingestion of fruits and vegetables, was determined using three 24 h diet recalls and a specific carotenoid database. Retinol, macronutrient and energy intake were calculated using DIAL(r) software. Results: The total carotenoid intake was 6363.2 µg/day, 56.1% corresponding to provitamin A carotenoids (74.3% β-carotene). Vitamin A intake was supplied by retinol (40%) and by provitamin A carotenoids (60%); vegetables contributed more than fruits (39.2% and 19.2%, respectively). Non-provitamin A carotenoid intake represents 43.9% of the total intake and is supplied by lycopene and lutein plus zeaxanthin in similar percentages (52.3% and 47.7%, respectively). Conclusions: The diet of these Dominican subjets met the recommended vitamin A intake, when expressed as retinol equivalents, 59% of which was supplied by provitamin-A carotenoids from plant sources, mainly by red/orange and white/yellow foods. Individual carotenoid intake is an aspect of great interest for issuing dietary recommendations in the public health setting.

          Translated abstract

          Resumen Introducción: los carotenoides son pigmentos con importantes actividades biológicas en los seres humanos, entre las que detaca la actividad provitamínica A. No hay datos de ingesta de carotenoides en la población dominicana, en la que hay un elevado porcentaje de individuos con sobrepreso y obesidad, así como riesgo de deficiencia en vitamina A. Objetivo: valorar la ingesta de los componentes individuales de vitamina A (retinol, β-caroteno, α-caroteno, β-criptoxantina) y de otros carotenoides relevantes (licopeno, luteína, zeaxantina) en sujetos dominicanos. Métodos: cincuenta sujetos con sobrepeso y obesidad (22-69 años). Tres recuerdos de dieta de 24 h y una aplicación específica para carotenoides, para valorar ingesta de carotenoides a partir de la dieta total y de la ingesta de frutas y hortalizas. La ingesta de retinol, macronutrientes y energía se calcula utilizando la aplicación DIAL(r). Resultados: la ingesta total de carotenoides fue 6363,2 µg/día, correspondiendo el 56,1% a carotenoides provitamina-A (74,3% β-caroteno). La ingesta de vitamina A procede del retinol (40%) y de los carotenoides provitamínicos (60%); las hortalizas contribuyeron más que las frutas (39,2% y 19,2%, respectivamente). Los carotenoides no-provitamínicos representaron el 43,9% de la ingesta total, con un aporte de licopeno y de luteína más zeaxantina en proporciones similares (52,3% y 47,7%, respectivamente). Conclusiones: la dieta de estos sujetos dominicanos cubre las recomendaciones de ingesta de vitamina A, expresada en equivalentes de retinol, siendo aportada por fuentes vegetales en un 59%, principalmente a partir de alimentos de colores rojo/anaranjado y blanco/amarillento. La ingesta individual de carotenoides es un aspecto de gran interés para emitir recomendaciones dietéticas en el ámbito de la salud pública.

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          Most cited references32

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          Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids

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            Secondary analyses of the effects of lutein/zeaxanthin on age-related macular degeneration progression: AREDS2 report No. 3.

            The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) contains vitamin C, vitamin E, beta carotene, and zinc with copper. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) assessed the value of substituting lutein/zeaxanthin in the AREDS formulation because of the demonstrated risk for lung cancer from beta carotene in smokers and former smokers and because lutein and zeaxanthin are important components in the retina. To further examine the effect of lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation on progression to late AMD. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 is a multicenter, double-masked randomized trial of 4203 participants, aged 50 to 85 years, at risk for developing late AMD; 66% of patients had bilateral large drusen and 34% had large drusen and late AMD in 1 eye. In addition to taking the original or a variation of the AREDS supplement, participants were randomly assigned in a factorial design to 1 of the following 4 groups: placebo; lutein/zeaxanthin, 10 mg/2 mg; omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty 3 acids, 1.0 g; or the combination. S Documented development of late AMD by central, masked grading of annual retinal photographs or by treatment history. RESULTS In exploratory analysis of lutein/zeaxanthin vs no lutein/zeaxanthin, the hazard ratio of the development of late AMD was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.99; P = .04). Exploratory analyses of direct comparison of lutein/zeaxanthin vs beta carotene showed hazard ratios of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.69-0.96; P = .02) for development of late AMD, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.94; P = .01) for development of neovascular AMD, and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.70-1.26; P = .67) for development of central geographic atrophy. In analyses restricted to eyes with bilateral large drusen at baseline, the direct comparison of lutein/zeaxanthin vs beta carotene showed hazard ratios of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.96; P = .02) for progression to late AMD, 0.65 (95% CI, 0.49-0.85; P = .002) for neovascular AMD, and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.69-1.39; P = .91) for central geographic atrophy. The totality of evidence on beneficial and adverse effects from AREDS2 and other studies suggests that lutein/zeaxanthin could be more appropriate than beta carotene in the AREDS-type supplements. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00345176.
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              Impact of micronutrient deficiencies on obesity.

              Micronutrient deficiencies have been found in obese individuals across age groups worldwide. While the effects of micronutrient deficiencies on human functions have been studied widely in different populations, there is limited information on how these micronutrient deficiencies affect obese populations. An examination of the available literature suggests associations exist between micronutrient deficiencies and obesity in different populations. These associations and possible mechanisms of the deficiencies' metabolic effects, such as their influence on leptin and insulin metabolism, are discussed here. Further studies are needed to clarify the roles of the different micronutrient deficiencies with respect to obesity and its comorbid conditions.

                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Nutrición Hospitalaria
                Nutr. Hosp.
                Grupo Arán (Madrid, Madrid, Spain )
                April 2017
                : 34
                : 2
                : 407-415
                [1] Santo Domingo orgnameConsultorios I Corazones Unidos República Dominicana
                [2] Madrid orgnameInstituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de los Alimentos y Nutrición (ICTAN-CSIC) Spain

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                : 27 November 2017
                : 25 October 2016
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 40, Pages: 9

                SciELO Spain

                Carotenoids,Dominican Republic,Dominicans,Dietary intake,Vitamin A,Fruit and vegetables.,Carotenoides,República Dominicana,Dominicanos,Ingesta dietética,Vitamina A,Frutas y hortalizas.


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