Sugarcane-molasses-based post-methanated distillery waste is well known for its toxicity, causing adverse effects on aquatic flora and fauna. Here, it has been demonstrated that there is an abundant mixture of androgenic and mutagenic compounds both in distillery sludge and leachate. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed dodecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, n-pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol trimethyl ether, heptacosane, dotriacontane, lanosta-8, 24-dien-3-one, 1-methylene-3-methyl butanol, 1-phenyl-1-propanol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl) cyclohexanol, and 2-ethylthio-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-1,4 anthraquinone as major organic pollutants along with heavy metals (all mg kg -1): Fe (2403), Zn (210.15), Mn (126.30, Cu (73.62), Cr (21.825), Pb (16.33) and Ni (13.425). In a simultaneous analysis of bacterial communities using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method the dominance of Bacillus sp. followed by Enterococcus sp. as autochthonous bacterial communities growing in this extremely toxic environment was shown, indicating a primary community for bioremediation. A toxicity evaluation showed a reduction of toxicity in degraded samples of sludge and leachate, confirming the role of autochthonous bacterial communities in the bioremediation of distillery waste in situ.