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      Detection of Androgenic-Mutagenic Compounds and Potential Autochthonous Bacterial Communities during In Situ Bioremediation of Post-methanated Distillery Sludge

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          Abstract

          Sugarcane-molasses-based post-methanated distillery waste is well known for its toxicity, causing adverse effects on aquatic flora and fauna. Here, it has been demonstrated that there is an abundant mixture of androgenic and mutagenic compounds both in distillery sludge and leachate. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed dodecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, n-pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol trimethyl ether, heptacosane, dotriacontane, lanosta-8, 24-dien-3-one, 1-methylene-3-methyl butanol, 1-phenyl-1-propanol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl) cyclohexanol, and 2-ethylthio-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-1,4 anthraquinone as major organic pollutants along with heavy metals (all mg kg -1): Fe (2403), Zn (210.15), Mn (126.30, Cu (73.62), Cr (21.825), Pb (16.33) and Ni (13.425). In a simultaneous analysis of bacterial communities using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method the dominance of Bacillus sp. followed by Enterococcus sp. as autochthonous bacterial communities growing in this extremely toxic environment was shown, indicating a primary community for bioremediation. A toxicity evaluation showed a reduction of toxicity in degraded samples of sludge and leachate, confirming the role of autochthonous bacterial communities in the bioremediation of distillery waste in situ.

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          Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs.

          The BLAST programs are widely used tools for searching protein and DNA databases for sequence similarities. For protein comparisons, a variety of definitional, algorithmic and statistical refinements described here permits the execution time of the BLAST programs to be decreased substantially while enhancing their sensitivity to weak similarities. A new criterion for triggering the extension of word hits, combined with a new heuristic for generating gapped alignments, yields a gapped BLAST program that runs at approximately three times the speed of the original. In addition, a method is introduced for automatically combining statistically significant alignments produced by BLAST into a position-specific score matrix, and searching the database using this matrix. The resulting Position-Specific Iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST) program runs at approximately the same speed per iteration as gapped BLAST, but in many cases is much more sensitive to weak but biologically relevant sequence similarities. PSI-BLAST is used to uncover several new and interesting members of the BRCT superfamily.
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            MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0.

            We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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              Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0.

              The Clustal W and Clustal X multiple sequence alignment programs have been completely rewritten in C++. This will facilitate the further development of the alignment algorithms in the future and has allowed proper porting of the programs to the latest versions of Linux, Macintosh and Windows operating systems. The programs can be run on-line from the EBI web server: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/tools/clustalw2. The source code and executables for Windows, Linux and Macintosh computers are available from the EBI ftp site ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/software/clustalw2/
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Department of Environmental Microbiology, School for Environmental Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University Lucknow, India
                Author notes

                Edited by: Bhim Pratap Singh, Mizoram University, India

                Reviewed by: Maulin P. Shah, Enviro Technology Limited, India; Luiz Fernando Romanholo Ferreira, Universidade Tiradentes, Brazil

                This article was submitted to Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                17 May 2017
                2017
                : 8
                5434103 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00887
                Copyright © 2017 Chandra and Kumar.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Counts
                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, Equations: 3, References: 62, Pages: 18, Words: 0
                Funding
                Funded by: Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology 10.13039/501100001407
                Award ID: No. BT/PR/11978/BCE/08/744/2009
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Original Research

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