Inflammatory pain manifests as spontaneous pain and pain hypersensitivity. Spontaneous pain reflects direct activation of specific receptors on nociceptor terminals by inflammatory mediators. Pain hypersensitivity is the consequence of early posttranslational changes, both in the peripheral terminals of the nociceptor and in dorsal horn neurons, as well as later transcription-dependent changes in effector genes, again in primary sensory and dorsal horn neurons. This inflammatory neuroplasticity is the consequence of a combination of activity-dependent changes in the neurons and specific signal molecules initiating particular signal-transduction pathways. These pathways phosphorylate membrane proteins, changing their function, and activate transcription factors, altering gene expression. Two distinct aspects of sensory neuron function are changed as a result of these processes, basal sensitivity, or the capacity of peripheral stimuli to evoke pain, and stimulus-evoked hypersensitivity, the capacity of certain inputs to generate prolonged alterations in the sensitivity of the system. Posttranslational changes largely alter basal sensitivity. Transcriptional changes both potentiate the system and alter neuronal phenotype. Potentiation occurs as a result of the up-regulation in the dorsal root ganglion of centrally acting neuromodulators and simultaneously in the dorsal horn of their receptors. This means that the response to subsequent inputs is augmented, particularly those that induce stimulus-induced hypersensitivity. Alterations in phenotype includes the acquisition by A fibers of neurochemical features typical of C fibers, enabling these fibers to induce stimulus-evoked hypersensitivity, something only C fiber inputs normally can do. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms responsible provides new opportunities for therapeutic approaches to managing inflammatory pain.