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      FT-IR Characterization of Pollen Biochemistry, Viability, and Germination Capacity inSaintpauliaH. Wendl. Genotypes

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          Abstract

          FT-IR characterization of pollen biochemistry was analyzed to detect possible connection with the viability (by staining with potassium iodide, 25%) and the germination capacity (on solid nutrient medium), in 15 Saintpauliagenotypes. Vibrational spectroscopy indicates that the pollen of S. ionanthagenotype “Red Velvet” is rich in proteins, lipids, triglycerides, and esters and has a viability of 88.4% and a low germination capacity (27.16%). For S. ionantha“Jolly Red” and “Lucky Ladybug” genotypes, pollen showed high viability (88.81–91.49%) and low germination capacity (23.02–9.17%), even though the pollen is rich in carbohydrates. S. ionantha“Aloha Orchid” genotype has the highest percentage of viability (94.32%) and germination capacity (45.73%) and a rich content of carbohydrates and polygalacturonic acids. In S. rupicolaand S. ionanthagenotypes, the rich content of polygalacturonic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates favourably influenced the germination capacity. Spectroscopic result indicates, through different absorbance band intensity, a possible link between biochemical composition, viability, and germination capacity of Saintpauliapollen. To determine exactly the relation between biochemistry and biological processes, it is necessary to initiate quantitative researches.

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          Fourier-Transform Raman and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (An Investigation of Five Higher Plant Cell Walls and Their Components).

          Infrared and Raman spectra of sequentially extracted primary cell walls and their pectic polymers were obtained from five angiosperm plants. Fourier-transform Raman spectrometry was shown to be a powerful tool for the investigation of primary cell-wall architecture at a molecular level, providing complementary information to that obtained by Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy. The use of an extraction procedure using imidazole instead of cyclohexane trans-1,2-N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-diaminotetraacetate allows the extension of the infrared spectral window for data interpretation from 1300 to 800 cm-1, to 2000 to 800 cm-1, and allows us to obtain Raman spectra from extracted cell-wall material. Wall constituents such as pectins, proteins, aromatic phenolics, cellulose, and hemicellulose have characteristic spectral features that can be used to identify and/or fingerprint these polymers without, in most cases, the need for any physical separation. The Gramineae (rice [Oryza sativa], polypogon [Polypogon fugax steud], and sweet corn [Zea mays]) are spectroscopically very different from the nongraminaceous monocotyledon (onion [Allium cepa]) and the dicotyledon (carrot [Daucus carota]); this reflects differences in chemical composition and cross-linking of the walls. The possibility of a taxonomic classification of plant cell walls based on infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the use of spectral fingerprinting for authentication and detection of adulteration of products rich in cell-wall materials are discussed.
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            Infrared Spectroscopy of Pollen Identifies Plant Species and Genus as Well as Environmental Conditions

            Background It is imperative to have reliable and timely methodologies for analysis and monitoring of seed plants in order to determine climate-related plant processes. Moreover, impact of environment on plant fitness is predominantly based on studies of female functions, while the contribution of male gametophytes is mostly ignored due to missing data on pollen quality. We explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of plants. Methodology The study was based on measurement of pollen samples by two Fourier transform infrared techniques: single reflectance attenuated total reflectance and transmission measurement of sample pellets. The experimental set, with a total of 813 samples, included five pollination seasons and 300 different plant species belonging to all principal spermatophyte clades (conifers, monocotyledons, eudicots, and magnoliids). Results The spectroscopic-based methodology enables detection of phylogenetic variations, including the separation of confamiliar and congeneric species. Furthermore, the methodology enables measurement of phenotypic plasticity by the detection of inter-annual variations within the populations. The spectral differences related to environment and taxonomy are interpreted biochemically, specifically variations of pollen lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and sporopollenins. The study shows large variations of absolute content of nutrients for congenital species pollinating in the same environmental conditions. Moreover, clear correlation between carbohydrate-to-protein ratio and pollination strategy has been detected. Infrared spectral database with respect to biochemical variation among the range of species, climate and biogeography will significantly improve comprehension of plant-environment interactions, including impact of global climate change on plant communities.
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              Early salt stress effects on the changes in chemical composition in leaves of ice plant and Arabidopsis. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study.

              A technique based on Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry was developed to detect the corresponding changes in chemical composition associated with the rapid changes in sodium and water content in 200 mM NaCl-stressed halophyte ice plants (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum). The changes in glycophyte Arabidopsis stressed with 50 mM NaCl were also examined for comparison. The obtained IR spectra were further processed by deconvolution and curve fitting to examine the chemical nature of the responding sources in the leaves. Using three stages of ice plant leaves, absorption bands corresponding to carbohydrates, cell wall pectin, and proteins were identified, with distinct IR spectra representing each developmental stage. Within 48 h of mild salt stress, the absorption band intensities in the fingerprint region increased continuously in both plants, suggesting that the carbon assimilation was not affected at the early stage of stress. The intensities of ester and amide I absorption bands decreased slightly in Arabidopsis but increased in ice plant, suggesting that the cell expansion and protein synthesis ceased in Arabidopsis but continued in ice plant. In both plants, the shift in amide I absorption band was observed hourly after salt stress, indicating a rapid conformational change of cellular proteins. Analyses of the ratio between major and minor amide I absorption band revealed that ice plant was able to maintain a higher-ordered form of proteins under stress. Furthermore, the changes in protein conformation showed a positive correlation to the leaf sodium contents in ice plant, but not in Arabidopsis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Spectroscopy
                Journal of Spectroscopy
                Hindawi Limited
                2314-4920
                2314-4939
                2015
                2015
                : 2015
                :
                : 1-7
                Article
                10.1155/2015/706370
                © 2015

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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