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      Acute phase protein response to viral infection and vaccination

      review-article
      *
      Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
      Elsevier
      C-reactive protein, Pentraxins, Viral disease, Vaccine, Biomarker, Antiviral therapy

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          Abstract

          Organisms respond in multiple ways to microbial infections. Pathogen invasion tipically triggers an inflammatory response where acute phase proteins (APP) have a key role. Pentraxins (PTX) are a family of highly conserved APP that play a part in the host defense against infection. The larger proteins of the family are simply named pentraxins, while c-reactive proteins (CRP) and serum amyloid proteins (SAA, SAP) are known as short pentraxins. Although high APP levels have been broadly associated with bacterial infections, there is a growing body of evidence revealing increased PTX, CRP and SAP expression upon viral infection. Furthermore, CRP, PTX and SAP have shown their potential as diagnostic markers and predictors of disease outcome. Likewise, the measurement of APP levels can be valuable to determine the efficacy of antiviral therapies and vaccines. From the practical point of view, the ability of APP to reduce viral infectivity has been observed in several virus-host models. This has prompted investigation efforts to assess the role of acute phase response proteins as immunoregulatory molecules and their potential as therapeutic reagents. This work aims to present an overview of the APP response to viral infections reviewing the current knowledge in the field.

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          Most cited references97

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          An integrated view of humoral innate immunity: pentraxins as a paradigm.

          The innate immune system consists of a cellular and a humoral arm. Pentraxins (e.g., the short pentraxin C reactive protein and the long pentraxin PTX3) are key components of the humoral arm of innate immunity which also includes complement components, collectins, and ficolins. In response to microorganisms and tissue damage, neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells are major sources of fluid-phase pattern-recognition molecules (PRMs) belonging to different molecular classes. Humoral PRMs in turn interact with and regulate cellular effectors. Effector mechanisms of the humoral innate immune system include activation and regulation of the complement cascade; agglutination and neutralization; facilitation of recognition via cellular receptors (opsonization); and regulation of inflammation. Thus, the humoral arm of innate immunity is an integrated system consisting of different molecules and sharing functional outputs with antibodies.
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            Is Open Access

            Serum amyloid A – a review

            Serum amyloid A (SAA) proteins were isolated and named over 50 years ago. They are small (104 amino acids) and have a striking relationship to the acute phase response with serum levels rising as much as 1000-fold in 24 hours. SAA proteins are encoded in a family of closely-related genes and have been remarkably conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. Amino-terminal fragments of SAA can form highly organized, insoluble fibrils that accumulate in “secondary” amyloid disease. Despite their evolutionary preservation and dynamic synthesis pattern SAA proteins have lacked well-defined physiologic roles. However, considering an array of many, often unrelated, reports now permits a more coordinated perspective. Protein studies have elucidated basic SAA structure and fibril formation. Appreciating SAA’s lipophilicity helps relate it to lipid transport and metabolism as well as atherosclerosis. SAA’s function as a cytokine-like protein has become recognized in cell-cell communication as well as feedback in inflammatory, immunologic, neoplastic and protective pathways. SAA likely has a critical role in control and possibly propagation of the primordial acute phase response. Appreciating the many cellular and molecular interactions for SAA suggests possibilities for improved understanding of pathophysiology as well as treatment and disease prevention.
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              Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview.

              Innate immunity is a semi-specific and widely distributed form of immunity, which represents the first line of defence against pathogens. This type of immunity is critical to maintain homeostasis and prevent microbe invasion, eliminating a great variety of pathogens and contributing with the activation of the adaptive immune response. The components of innate immunity include physical and chemical barriers, humoral and cell-mediated components, which are present in all jawed vertebrates. The understanding of innate defence mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates is the key to comprehend the general picture of vertebrate innate immunity and its evolutionary history. This is also essential for the identification of new molecules with applications in immunopharmacology and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe and discuss the main elements of vertebrate innate immunity, presenting core findings in this field and identifying areas that need further investigation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Arch Biochem Biophys
                Arch. Biochem. Biophys
                Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
                Elsevier
                0003-9861
                1096-0384
                16 July 2019
                15 August 2019
                16 July 2019
                : 671
                : 196-202
                Affiliations
                [1]Instituto de Investigación Desarrollo e Innovación en Biotecnología Sanitaria de Elche (IDiBE-IBMC), Universidad Miguel Hernández, UMH, Elche, Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Av. de la Universidad s/n, 03202, Elche, Spain. Tel.: +34 966 65 84 35. luis.perez@ 123456umh.es
                Article
                S0003-9861(19)30321-2
                10.1016/j.abb.2019.07.013
                7094616
                31323216
                154c6ce1-5410-4059-9b49-be805c3f81e9
                © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                History
                : 3 May 2019
                : 29 June 2019
                : 15 July 2019
                Categories
                Article

                Biochemistry
                c-reactive protein,pentraxins,viral disease,vaccine,biomarker,antiviral therapy
                Biochemistry
                c-reactive protein, pentraxins, viral disease, vaccine, biomarker, antiviral therapy

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