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      Transforming growth factor-beta promotes survival of mammary carcinoma cells through induction of antiapoptotic transcription factor DEC1.

      Cancer research

      Animals, Apoptosis, physiology, Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors, biosynthesis, genetics, Cell Survival, Homeodomain Proteins, Humans, Liver Neoplasms, secondary, Lung Neoplasms, Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental, metabolism, pathology, Mice, Protein Kinase Inhibitors, pharmacology, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, antagonists & inhibitors, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt, RNA, Messenger, Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Signal Transduction, Smad Proteins, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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          Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling facilitates tumor growth and metastasis in advanced cancer. In the present study, we identified differentially expressed in chondrocytes 1 (DEC1, also known as SHARP2 and Stra13) as a downstream target of TGF-beta signaling, which promotes the survival of breast cancer cells. In the mouse mammary carcinoma cell lines JygMC(A) and 4T1, the TGF-beta type I receptor kinase inhibitors A-44-03 and SB431542 induced apoptosis of cells under serum-free conditions. Oligonucleotide microarray and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed that TGF-beta induced DEC1 in these cells, and the increase of DEC1 was suppressed by the TGF-beta type I receptor kinase inhibitors as well as by expression of dominant-negative TGF-beta type II receptor. Overexpression of DEC1 prevented the apoptosis of JygMC(A) cells induced by A-44-03, and knockdown of endogenous DEC1 abrogated TGF-beta-promoted cell survival. Moreover, a dominant-negative mutant of DEC1 prevented lung and liver metastasis of JygMC(A) cells in vivo. Our observations thus provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms governing TGF-beta-mediated cell survival and metastasis of cancer.

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