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      Prevention of non-communicable disease in a population in nutrition transition: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study phase II

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          Abstract

          Background

          The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) is a long term integrated community-based program for prevention of non-communicable disorders (NCD) by development of a healthy lifestyle and reduction of NCD risk factors. The study begun in 1999, is ongoing, to be continued for at least 20 years. A primary survey was done to collect baseline data in 15005 individuals, over 3 years of age, selected from cohorts of three medical heath centers. A questionnaire for past medical history and data was completed during interviews; blood pressure, pulse rate, and anthropometrical measurements and a limited physical examination were performed and lipid profiles, fasting blood sugar and 2-hours-postload-glucose challenge were measured. A DNA bank was also collected. For those subjects aged over 30 years, Rose questionnaire was completed and an electrocardiogram was taken. Data collected were directly stored in computers as database software- computer assisted system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of lifestyle modification in preventing or postponing the development of NCD risk factors and outcomes in the TLGS population.

          Design and methods

          In phase II of the TLGS, lifestyle interventions were implemented in 5630 people and 9375 individuals served as controls. Primary, secondary and tertiary interventions were designed based on specific target groups including schoolchildren, housewives, and high-risk persons. Officials of various sectors such as health, education, municipality, police, media, traders and community leaders were actively engaged as decision makers and collaborators. Interventional strategies were based on lifestyle modifications in diet, smoking and physical activity through face-to-face education, leaflets & brochures, school program alterations, training volunteers as health team and treating patients with NCD risk factors. Collection of demographic, clinical and laboratory data will be repeated every 3 years to assess the effects of different interventions in the intervention group as compared to control group.

          Conclusion

          This controlled community intervention will test the possibility of preventing or delaying the onset of non-communicable risk factors and disorders in a population in nutrition transition.

          Trial registration

          ISRCTN52588395

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          Most cited references 65

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          An accelerated nutrition transition in Iran.

          To describe the emergence of the nutrition transition, and associated morbidity shifts, in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Review and analysis of secondary data relating to the socio-political and nutritional context, demographic trends, food utilisation and consumption patterns, obesity, and diet-related morbidity. The nutrition transition in Iran is occurring rapidly, secondary to the rapid change in fertility and mortality patterns and to urbanisation. The transition is occurring against the backdrop of lack of sustained economic growth. There is considerable imbalance in food consumption with low nutrient density characterising diets at all income levels, over-consumption evident among more than a third of households, and food insecurity among 20% of the population. Obesity is an emerging problem, particularly in urban areas and for women, and both diabetes and other risk factors for heart disease are becoming significant problems.
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            Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

            Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool institutions, schools or after-school care services as natural setting for influencing the diet and physical activity. All in all, there is an urgent need to initiate prevention and treatment of obesity in children.
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              Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

              The aim of the present investigation was to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among 103,68 of the adults (4,397 men and 5,971 women) aged 20 years and over, participating in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the presence of three or more of the following components: abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose. The unadjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the study population was 30.1% (CI 95%: 29.2-31.0) and age-standardized prevalence was 33.7% (CI 95%: 32.8-34.6). The prevalence increased with age in both sexes. The metabolic syndrome was more commonly seen in women than in men (42% vs. 24%, P<0.001). Low HDL-C was the most common metabolic abnormality in both sexes. Except for high FPG, all abnormalities were more common in women than in men (P<0.001). Most of those with metabolic syndrome had three components of the syndrome (58%), 33% had four, and 9% had five components. This report on the metabolic syndrome from Iran shows a high prevalence of this disorder. Efforts on promoting healthy diets, physical activity, and blood pressure control must be undertaken.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Trials
                Trials
                BioMed Central
                1745-6215
                2009
                25 January 2009
                : 10
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University (M. C), Tehran, Iran
                Article
                1745-6215-10-5
                10.1186/1745-6215-10-5
                2656492
                19166627
                1569f170-9530-4ae0-a731-ede8f9f88eff
                Copyright © 2009 Azizi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Study Protocol

                Medicine

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