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      Treat-to-target therapy does not prevent excessive progression of carotid intima media thickness during the first year of therapy in early rheumatoid arthritis

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis and predictors of change in carotid intima-media measures in early rheumatoid arthritis patients (eRA) as compared to chronic RA patients and patients without arthritis.

          Material and methods

          Fifty-five consecutive eRA patients were assessed at the time of diagnosis and after 1 year of therapy. Fifty-five sex- and age-matched chronic RA patients and 29 patients without inflammatory disease were used as controls. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid plaques were measured at baseline and after follow-up. In eRA patients ultrasound assessment of hand joints was performed before and after treatment. Carotid artery intima-media thickness was assessed again after 2 years in 44 eRA patients.

          Results

          Carotid artery intima-media thickness progression after 1 year of therapy was higher in eRA patients compared to both control groups ( p = 0.017) and correlated with symptoms duration ( p = 0.017) and DMARD monotherapy ( p = 0.015). Ultrasound progression of hand joint erosions was associated with longer symptoms duration ( p = 0.006). After 2 years of observation CIMT progression was similar in all examined groups.

          Conclusions

          We observed rapid CIMT progression during the first year of RA therapy. Longer symptoms duration and less aggressive therapy were associated with CIMT increase.

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          Most cited references 38

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          2010 Rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative.

          The 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR; formerly, the American Rheumatism Association) classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been criticized for their lack of sensitivity in early disease. This work was undertaken to develop new classification criteria for RA. A joint working group from the ACR and the European League Against Rheumatism developed, in 3 phases, a new approach to classifying RA. The work focused on identifying, among patients newly presenting with undifferentiated inflammatory synovitis, factors that best discriminated between those who were and those who were not at high risk for persistent and/or erosive disease--this being the appropriate current paradigm underlying the disease construct "rheumatoid arthritis." In the new criteria set, classification as "definite RA" is based on the confirmed presence of synovitis in at least 1 joint, absence of an alternative diagnosis that better explains the synovitis, and achievement of a total score of 6 or greater (of a possible 10) from the individual scores in 4 domains: number and site of involved joints (score range 0-5), serologic abnormality (score range 0-3), elevated acute-phase response (score range 0-1), and symptom duration (2 levels; range 0-1). This new classification system redefines the current paradigm of RA by focusing on features at earlier stages of disease that are associated with persistent and/or erosive disease, rather than defining the disease by its late-stage features. This will refocus attention on the important need for earlier diagnosis and institution of effective disease-suppressing therapy to prevent or minimize the occurrence of the undesirable sequelae that currently comprise the paradigm underlying the disease construct "rheumatoid arthritis."
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            General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study.

            Separate multivariable risk algorithms are commonly used to assess risk of specific atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, ie, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and heart failure. The present report presents a single multivariable risk function that predicts risk of developing all CVD and of its constituents. We used Cox proportional-hazards regression to evaluate the risk of developing a first CVD event in 8491 Framingham study participants (mean age, 49 years; 4522 women) who attended a routine examination between 30 and 74 years of age and were free of CVD. Sex-specific multivariable risk functions ("general CVD" algorithms) were derived that incorporated age, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, treatment for hypertension, smoking, and diabetes status. We assessed the performance of the general CVD algorithms for predicting individual CVD events (coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, or heart failure). Over 12 years of follow-up, 1174 participants (456 women) developed a first CVD event. All traditional risk factors evaluated predicted CVD risk (multivariable-adjusted P<0.0001). The general CVD algorithm demonstrated good discrimination (C statistic, 0.763 [men] and 0.793 [women]) and calibration. Simple adjustments to the general CVD risk algorithms allowed estimation of the risks of each CVD component. Two simple risk scores are presented, 1 based on all traditional risk factors and the other based on non-laboratory-based predictors. A sex-specific multivariable risk factor algorithm can be conveniently used to assess general CVD risk and risk of individual CVD events (coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial disease and heart failure). The estimated absolute CVD event rates can be used to quantify risk and to guide preventive care.
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              Prediction of clinical cardiovascular events with carotid intima-media thickness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is increasingly used as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis. Its use relies on its ability to predict future clinical cardiovascular end points. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of data to examine this association. Using a prespecified search strategy, we identified 8 relevant studies and compared study design, measurement protocols, and reported data. We identified sources of heterogeneity between studies. The assumption of a linear relationship between IMT and risk was challenged by use of a graphical technique. To obtain a pooled estimate of the relative risk per IMT difference, we performed a meta-analysis based on random effects models. The age- and sex-adjusted overall estimates of the relative risk of myocardial infarction were 1.26 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.30) per 1-standard deviation common carotid artery IMT difference and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.17) per 0.10-mm common carotid artery IMT difference. The age- and sex-adjusted relative risks of stroke were 1.32 (95% CI, 1.27 to 1.38) per 1-standard deviation common carotid artery IMT difference and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.16 to 1.21) per 0.10-mm common carotid artery IMT difference. Major sources of heterogeneity were age distribution, carotid segment definition, and IMT measurement protocol. The relationship between IMT and risk was nonlinear, but the linear models fitted relatively well for moderate to high IMT values. Carotid IMT is a strong predictor of future vascular events. The relative risk per IMT difference is slightly higher for the end point stroke than for myocardial infarction. In future IMT studies, ultrasound protocols should be aligned with published studies. Data for younger individuals are limited and more studies are required.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Arch Med Sci Atheroscler Dis
                Arch Med Sci Atheroscler Dis
                AMS-AD
                Archives of Medical Sciences. Atherosclerotic Diseases
                Termedia Publishing House
                2451-0629
                30 May 2016
                2016
                : 1
                : 1
                : e36-e43
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine and Rheumatology, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Allergology and Infectious Diseases, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Anna Raczkiewicz, Department of Internal Medicine and Rheumatology, Military Institute of Medicine, 128 Szaserów St, 04-141 Warsaw, Poland. Phone: +48 691 967 030. E-mail: anna.raczkiewicz@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                27675
                10.5114/amsad.2016.60225
                5421530
                Copyright: © 2016 Termedia & Banach

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.

                Categories
                Clinical Research

                atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, treatment

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