Objective Arrhythmia patients complicated with psychological problems are very common in clinics. The imbalance of autonomic nervous regulation of the heart caused by anxiety and depression will further promote the occurrence and development of arrhythmia. For nonorganic heart disease, β receptor blockers combined with antianxiety drugs have a good effect. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the influencing factors of anxiety and depression in patients with arrhythmias. Methods We included 150 patients with arrhythmia and divided them into observation groups (80 patients with anxiety and depression) and control groups (70 patients without anxiety and depression). All patients were monitored by Holter, and the detection of arrhythmia was compared between the two groups. We took the general situation and quality of life of the investigated patients as independent variables and the anxiety and depression status of the patients as dependent variables. Results The detection rates of atrioventricular premature beats, ventricular premature beats, atrial fibrillation, short bursts of atrial tachycardia, and atrioventricular block in the observation group were all higher than those in the control group by dynamic electrocardiogram. Multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis showed that age, years of education, obsessive-compulsive score, somatization score and alcohol consumption were the main influencing factors for anxiety and depression. Conclusions The detection rate of arrhythmia in patients with anxiety/depression status was higher than in those without abnormal psychophylaxis. We should need to pay close attention to the risk factors of age, education years, obsessive-compulsive score, somatization score, and alcohol consumption, so as to prevent and timely detect anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with arrhythmias.