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      A grid-based sample design framework for household surveys

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          Abstract

          Traditional sample designs for household surveys are contingent upon the availability of a representative primary sampling frame. This is defined using enumeration units and population counts retrieved from decennial national censuses that can become rapidly inaccurate in highly dynamic demographic settings. To tackle the need for representative sampling frames, we propose an original grid-based sample design framework introducing essential concepts of spatial sampling in household surveys. In this framework, the sampling frame is defined based on gridded population estimates and formalized as a bi-dimensional random field, characterized by spatial trends, spatial autocorrelation, and stratification. The sampling design reflects the characteristics of the random field by combining contextual stratification and proportional to population size sampling. A nonparametric estimator is applied to evaluate the sampling design and inform sample size estimation. We demonstrate an application of the proposed framework through a case study developed in two provinces located in the western part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We define a sampling frame consisting of settled cells with associated population estimates. We then perform a contextual stratification by applying a principal component analysis (PCA) and k-means clustering to a set of gridded geospatial covariates, and sample settled cells proportionally to population size. Lastly, we evaluate the sampling design by contrasting the empirical cumulative distribution function for the entire population of interest and its weighted counterpart across different sample sizes and identify an adequate sample size using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance between the two functions. The results of the case study underscore the strengths and limitations of the proposed grid-based sample design framework and foster further research into the application of spatial sampling concepts in household surveys.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data CurationRole: Formal AnalysisRole: MethodologyRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – Original Draft Preparation
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal AnalysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – Original Draft Preparation
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – Review & Editing
                Role: Funding AcquisitionRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – Review & Editing
                Journal
                Gates Open Res
                Gates Open Res
                Gates Open Res
                Gates Open Research
                F1000 Research Limited (London, UK )
                2572-4754
                27 January 2020
                2020
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]WorldPop, School of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK
                [2 ]Department of Social Statistics and Demography, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK
                [3 ]Flowminder Foundation, Stockholm, 11355, Sweden
                [1 ]Institute of Development Policy (IOB), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
                [1 ]BioMedware, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI, USA
                [1 ]Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands
                Author notes

                No competing interests were disclosed.

                Competing interests: No competing interests were disclosed.

                Competing interests: No competing interests were disclosed.

                Competing interests: No competing interests were disclosed.

                Article
                10.12688/gatesopenres.13107.1
                7076148
                Copyright: © 2020 Boo G et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Funding
                Funded by: Department for International Development, UK Government
                Award ID: OPP1182408
                Funded by: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
                Award ID: OPP1182408
                This work was supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the United Kingdom Department of International Development (DFID) [OPP1182408].
                The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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