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      Anticancer activity of flavane gallates isolated from Plicosepalus curviflorus

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Previous investigation of the methanol extract of Plicosepalus curviflorus leaves led to the isolation of two new flavane gallates (1, 2), together with other compounds including quercetin (3). The stems of P. curviflorus are used traditionally for the treatment of cancer in Yemen.

          Objective:

          The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of the plant methanol extract as well as isolated compounds (1-3).

          Materials and Methods:

          The human cancer cell lines used were; MCF-7, HepG-2, HCT-116, Hep-2, HeLa and normal, Vero cell line using the Crystal Violet Staining method (CVS).

          Results:

          Quercetin (3) possessed the highest anticancer effect against all five cell lines (IC 50 ranging from 3.6 to 16.2 μg/ml). It was followed by 2S, 3R-3, 3′, 4′, 5, 7-pentahydroxyflavane-5- O-gallate (1), with IC 50 ranging from 11.6 to 38.8 μg/ml. The weakest anticancer activity was given by 2S, 3R-3,3′,4′,5,5′,7-hexahydroxyflavane-3′,5-di- O-gallate (2) with IC 50 ranging from 39.8 to above 50 μg/ml, compared to vinblastine sulphate as reference drug. Colon, liver and breast cell lines seemed to be more sensitive to the tested compounds than the cervical and laryngeal cell lines. Concerning the cytotoxic effect on Vero cell line, the pentahydroxyflavane-5- O-gallate (1) showed the highest IC 50 ( 138.2 μg/ml), while quercetin exhibited the lowest IC 50 to Vero cells (30.5 μg/ml), compared to vinblastine sulphate as reference drug (IC 50: 39.7 μg/ml).

          Conclusion:

          The results suggest the possible use of compounds 1 and 3 as anticancer drugs especially against colon and liver cancers.

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          Most cited references15

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          Antitumor activities of quercetin and quercetin-5',8-disulfonate in human colon and breast cancer cell lines.

          This study is designed to compare the anticancer effects of quercetin and its water-soluble sulfated derivative, quercetin-5',8-disulfonate (QS), in human colon cancer LoVo cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. It was found that both quercetin and QS can inhibit the growth of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, with the IC(50) values of 40.2 and 28.0 μM for LoVo cells and 30.8 and 19.9 μM for MCF-7 cells, respectively, suggesting QS was more effective against the cancer cells than quercetin. Moreover, flow cytometric assay revealed that quercetin and QS could mediate the cell-cycle arrest principally in the S phase after 24h of treatment with the two tumor cells. It was also found that 69.6% of LoVo cells and 90.6% of MCF-7 cells entered the early phase of apoptosis when treated with 100 μM QS for 48 h. Furthermore, we firstly found the generation of ROS is a critical mediator in QS-induced cell growth inhibition. Taken together, the novel sulfated derivative of quercetin possesses strong antitumor activity via a ROS-dependent apoptosis pathway, and has the excellent potential to be developed into an antitumor precursor compound. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Role of Bax in quercetin-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells.

            The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin, a flavonoid, on the apoptotic pathway in a human prostate cell line (LNCaP). We observed that treatment of cells for 24h with quercetin-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. A sustained inhibition of the major survival signal, Akt, occurred in quercetin-treated cells. Treatment of LNCaP cells with an apoptosis inducing concentration of quercetin (100 microM) resulted in a rapid decrease in the inhibitory Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt leading to inhibition of its kinase activity. Quercetin treatment (100 microM) also caused a decrease in Ser136 phosphorylation of Bad, which is a downstream target of Akt. Protein interaction assay revealed that during treatment with quercetin, Bcl-xL dissociated from Bax and then associated with Bad. Our results also show that quercetin decreases the Bcl-xL:Bax ratio and increases translocation and multimerization of Bax to the mitochondrial membrane. The translocation is accompanied by cytochrome c release, and procaspases-3, -8 and -9 cleavage and increased poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Similar results were observed in human colon cancer HCT116Bax+/+ cell line, but not HCT116Bax-/- cell line. Interestingly, at similar concentrations (100 microM), quercetin treatment did not affect the viability or rate of apoptosis in normal human prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) and rat prostate epithelial cell line (YPEN-1). Our results indicate that the apoptotic processes caused by quercetin are mediated by the dissociation of Bax from Bcl-xL and the activation of caspase families in human prostate cancer cells.
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              Evolutionary relationships in the showy mistletoe family (Loranthaceae).

              Loranthaceae (73 genera and ca. 900 species) comprise mostly aerial hemiparasitic plants. Three monotypic genera considered relicts are root parasites. The family is diverse in tropical areas, but representatives are also found in temperate habitats. Previous classifications were based on floral and inflorescence morphology, karyological information, and biogeography. The family has been divided into three tribes: Nuytsiae, Elytrantheae (subtribes Elytranthinae and Gaiadendrinae), and Lorantheae (subtribes Loranthinae and Psittacanthinae). Nuytsiae and Elytrantheae are characterized by a base chromosome number of x = 12, whereas subtribes Loranthinae (x = 9) and Psittacanthinae (x = 8) numbers are derived via aneuploid reduction. To elucidate the phylogeny of the family, we analyzed sequences from five genes (nuclear small and large subunit rDNA and the chloroplast genes rbcL, matK, and trnL-F) representing most genera using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The three root parasites, Nuytsia, Atkinsonia, and Gaiadendron, are supported as successive sister taxa to the remaining genera, resulting in a monophyletic group of aerial parasites. Three major clades are resolved each corresponding to a subtribe. However, two South American genera (Tristerix and Notanthera) and the New Zealand genus Tupeia, which were previously classified in subtribe Elytranthinae, are weakly supported as part of a clade representing the South American subtribe Psittacanthinae.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pharmacogn Mag
                Pharmacogn Mag
                PM
                Pharmacognosy Magazine
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0973-1296
                0976-4062
                August 2014
                : 10
                : Suppl 3
                : S519-S523
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                [2 ] Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Ghada Ahmed Fawzy, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, Ministry of Higher Education, King Saud University, Medical Studies and Sciences Sections, Riyadh 11495, P. O. Box 22452, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail: gzeineldin@ 123456outlook.com
                Article
                PM-10-519
                10.4103/0973-1296.139787
                4189267
                158a3583-d608-4bfe-a2e2-bfc38cbe8b29
                Copyright: © Pharmacognosy Magazine

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 04 November 2013
                : 05 January 2014
                : 30 August 2014
                Categories
                Original Article

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                anticancer,flavane gallates,plicosepalus curviflorus,quercetin

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