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      The Novelty-Seeking Phenotype Modulates the Long-Lasting Effects of Intermittent Ethanol Administration during Adolescence

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          The aim of the present study was to investigate if a novelty-seeking phenotype mediates the long-lasting consequences of intermittent EtOH intoxication during adolescence. The hole board test was employed to classify adolescent mice as High- or Low-Novelty Seekers. Subsequently, animals were administered ethanol (1.25 or 2.5 g/kg) on two consecutive days at 48-h intervals over a 14-day period. Anxiety levels - measured using the elevated plus maze- spontaneous motor activity and social interaction test were studied 3 weeks later. A different set of mice underwent the same procedure, but received only the 2.5 g/kg dose of ethanol. Three weeks later, in order to induce CPP, the same animals were administered 1 or 6 mg/kg of cocaine or 1 or 2.5 mg/kg MDMA. The results revealed a decrease in aggressive behaviors and an anxiolytic profile in HNS mice and longer latency to explore the novel object by LNS mice. Ethanol exposure enhanced the reinforcing effects of cocaine and MDMA in both groups when CPP was induced with a sub-threshold dose of the drugs. The extinguished cocaine-induced CPP (1 and 6 mg/kg) was reinstated after a priming dose in HNS animals only. Our results confirm that intermittent EtOH administration during adolescence induces long-lasting effects that are manifested in adult life, and that there is an association between these effects and the novelty-seeking phenotype.

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          Most cited references 68

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          The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations.

          To successfully negotiate the developmental transition between youth and adulthood, adolescents must maneuver this often stressful period while acquiring skills necessary for independence. Certain behavioral features, including age-related increases in social behavior and risk-taking/novelty-seeking, are common among adolescents of diverse mammalian species and may aid in this process. Reduced positive incentive values from stimuli may lead adolescents to pursue new appetitive reinforcers through drug use and other risk-taking behaviors, with their relative insensitivity to drugs supporting comparatively greater per occasion use. Pubertal increases in gonadal hormones are a hallmark of adolescence, although there is little evidence for a simple association of these hormones with behavioral change during adolescence. Prominent developmental transformations are seen in prefrontal cortex and limbic brain regions of adolescents across a variety of species, alterations that include an apparent shift in the balance between mesocortical and mesolimbic dopamine systems. Developmental changes in these stressor-sensitive regions, which are critical for attributing incentive salience to drugs and other stimuli, likely contribute to the unique characteristics of adolescence.
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            High impulsivity predicts the switch to compulsive cocaine-taking.

             D Belin,  A C Mar,  J W Dalley (2008)
            Both impulsivity and novelty-seeking have been suggested to be behavioral markers of the propensity to take addictive drugs. However, their relevance for the vulnerability to compulsively seek and take drugs, which is a hallmark feature of addiction, is unknown. We report here that, whereas high reactivity to novelty predicts the propensity to initiate cocaine self-administration, high impulsivity predicts the development of addiction-like behavior in rats, including persistent or compulsive drug-taking in the face of aversive outcomes. This study shows experimental evidence that a shift from impulsivity to compulsivity occurs during the development of addictive behavior, which provides insights into the genesis and neural mechanisms of drug addiction.
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              Measuring reward with the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm: update of the last decade.

               T Tzschentke (2007)
              Conditioned place preference (CPP) continues to be one of the most popular models to study the motivational effects of drugs and non-drug treatments in experimental animals. This is obvious from a steady year-to-year increase in the number of publications reporting the use this model. Since the compilation of the preceding review in 1998, more than 1000 new studies using place conditioning have been published, and the aim of the present review is to provide an overview of these recent publications. There are a number of trends and developments that are obvious in the literature of the last decade. First, as more and more knockout and transgenic animals become available, place conditioning is increasingly used to assess the motivational effects of drugs or non-drug rewards in genetically modified animals. Second, there is a still small but growing literature on the use of place conditioning to study the motivational aspects of pain, a field of pre-clinical research that has so far received little attention, because of the lack of appropriate animal models. Third, place conditioning continues to be widely used to study tolerance and sensitization to the rewarding effects of drugs induced by pre-treatment regimens. Fourth, extinction/reinstatement procedures in place conditioning are becoming increasingly popular. This interesting approach is thought to model certain aspects of relapse to addictive behavior and has previously almost exclusively been studied in drug self-administration paradigms. It has now also become established in the place conditioning literature and provides an additional and technically easy approach to this important phenomenon. The enormous number of studies to be covered in this review prevented in-depth discussion of many methodological, pharmacological or neurobiological aspects; to a large extent, the presentation of data had to be limited to a short and condensed summary of the most relevant findings.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                21 March 2014
                : 9
                : 3
                Unidad de Investigación Psicobiología de las Drogodependencias, Departamento de Psicobiología, Facultad de Psicología, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain
                Roma Tre University, Italy
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: MRA MAA JM. Performed the experiments: SMR MDL AVI CM. Analyzed the data: MRA JM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MRA JM SMR. Wrote the paper: MRA MAA JM SMR AVI MDL CM.


                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 11
                This work was supported by the following grants: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Dirección General de Investigación (PSI2011-24762); Generalidad Valenciana, Consejería de Educación (PROMETEO/2009/072); and Instituto de Salud ‘Carlos III’ (FIS), Redes Telemáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (RETICS), Red de Trastornos Adictivos (RTA), fondos FEDER (RD06/001/0016, RD12/0028/005). The funding organisms had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Behavioral Neuroscience
                Alcohol Consumption
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Clinical Medicine
                Mental Health and Psychiatry
                Behavioral Pharmacology
                Public and Occupational Health
                Behavioral and Social Aspects of Health
                Social Sciences



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