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      Fixed-dose combination orally disintegrating tablets to treat cardiovascular disease: formulation, in vitro characterization and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to assess bioavailability

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          Abstract

          Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among men and women worldwide. In CVD, hypertension and dyslipidemia commonly coexist and are managed through coadministration of amlodipine and atorvastatin, respectively. The case for fixed-dose combination (FDC) oral dosage forms and orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) technology to enhance outcomes and compliance is strong. This work follows the development and characterization of single and FDC ODTs containing amlodipine and atorvastatin, followed by bioequivalence comparison between these single and FDC formulations, using in vitro dissolution and Caco-2 apparent permeability (P app) and in silico physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling approaches. ODTs containing amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (10 mg) either alone or in combination rapidly disintegrated (<30 s) while displaying a radial crushing strength in excess of 100 N and friability ≤1%. In vitro dissolution test was performed in fasted and fed-state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF) and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Dissolution profiles for single and FDC ODTs were compared using US FDA recommended difference (f 1) and similarity (f 2) factor testing for bioequivalence. In all cases, there was no difference in active pharmaceutical ingredient dissolution between single or FDC ODTs, with the exception of amlodipine in FeSSIF. Pharmacokinetic clinical trial simulations were conducted using Simcyp (Version 14), incorporating P app and dissolution data. Simulated clinical trials in healthy volunteers showed no difference in bioavailability based on pharmacokinetic parameters between single and combination doses with either active pharmaceutical ingredient. An increase in C max and AUC for atorvastatin in fed subjects was attributed to extended transit along the gut lumen and reduced atorvastatin metabolism due to lower CYP3A4 expression at more distal small intestine absorption sites. The results demonstrated bioequivalence of an FDC ODT for amlodipine and atorvastatin, while highlighting several limitations of f 1 and f 2 bioequivalence testing and strengths of mechanistic pharmacokinetic modeling for oral drug absorption.

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          Most cited references 67

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          Clinical pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin.

          Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic disease. Atorvastatin lowers plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. The mean dose-response relationship has been shown to be log-linear for atorvastatin, but plasma concentrations of atorvastatin acid and its metabolites do not correlate with LDL-cholesterol reduction at a given dose. The clinical dosage range for atorvastatin is 10-80 mg/day, and it is given in the acid form. Atorvastatin acid is highly soluble and permeable, and the drug is completely absorbed after oral administration. However, atorvastatin acid is subject to extensive first-pass metabolism in the gut wall as well as in the liver, as oral bioavailability is 14%. The volume of distribution of atorvastatin acid is 381L, and plasma protein binding exceeds 98%. Atorvastatin acid is extensively metabolised in both the gut and liver by oxidation, lactonisation and glucuronidation, and the metabolites are eliminated by biliary secretion and direct secretion from blood to the intestine. In vitro, atorvastatin acid is a substrate for P-glycoprotein, organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) C and H+-monocarboxylic acid cotransporter. The total plasma clearance of atorvastatin acid is 625 mL/min and the half-life is about 7 hours. The renal route is of minor importance (<1%) for the elimination of atorvastatin acid. In vivo, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is responsible for the formation of two active metabolites from the acid and the lactone forms of atorvastatin. Atorvastatin acid and its metabolites undergo glucuronidation mediated by uridinediphosphoglucuronyltransferases 1A1 and 1A3. Atorvastatin can be given either in the morning or in the evening. Food decreases the absorption rate of atorvastatin acid after oral administration, as indicated by decreased peak concentration and increased time to peak concentration. Women appear to have a slightly lower plasma exposure to atorvastatin for a given dose. Atorvastatin is subject to metabolism by CYP3A4 and cellular membrane transport by OATP C and P-glycoprotein, and drug-drug interactions with potent inhibitors of these systems, such as itraconazole, nelfinavir, ritonavir, cyclosporin, fibrates, erythromycin and grapefruit juice, have been demonstrated. An interaction with gemfibrozil seems to be mediated by inhibition of glucuronidation. A few case studies have reported rhabdomyolysis when the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin have been affected by interacting drugs. Atorvastatin increases the bioavailability of digoxin, most probably by inhibition of P-glycoprotein, but does not affect the pharmacokinetics of ritonavir, nelfinavir or terfenadine.
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             W Kannel (1999)
            Five decades of epidemiologic research have established that blood pressure elevation is a common and powerful contributor to all of the major cardiovascular diseases, including coronary disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, renal disease, and heart failure. The common variety of hypertension designated benign essential hypertension was not shown to be either benign or essential. Although clinicians favor the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in terms of diastolic blood pressure elevation and categoric cut points, epidemiologic data show a more important influence of systolic blood pressure, and a continuous, graded influence of blood pressure even within what is regarded as the normotensive range. An important revelation in epidemiologic hypertension research is that hypertension usually occurs in conjunction with other metabolically linked risk factors; therefore, less than 20% occurs in isolation. The other risk factors that tend to accompany hypertension include glucose intolerance, obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy, and dislipidemia (elevated total, LDL, and small dense LDL cholesterol levels, raised triglyceride, and reduced HDL cholesterol levels). Clusters of three or more of these additional risk factors occur at four times the rate expected by chance. This clustering is attributed to an insulin resistance syndrome promoted by abdominal obesity. The amount of risk factor clustering accompanying elevated blood pressure was observed to increase with weight gain. Based on Framingham Study data the prevalence of insulin resistance syndrome in the general population could be as high as 22% in men and 27% in women. Risk of coronary disease, the most common and most lethal sequel to hypertension, increased stepwise with the extent of risk factor clustering. Among persons with hypertension, about 40% of coronary events in men and 68% in women are attributable to the presence of two or more additional risk factors. Only 14% of coronary events in hypertensive men and 5% of those in hypertensive women occurred in the absence of additional risk factors. Other important features of risk stratification of hypertension are the presence of an elevated heart rate and left ventricular hypertrophy, and an elevated fibrinogen that often accompany hypertension. Recent population-based data reported suggest that elevated renin accompanying hypertension may independently enhance the risk of coronary events. Because clustering of other major risk factors with hypertension is the rule, the prudent physician should routinely screen for the presence of these other factors. Multivariate risk assessment profiles are now available for coronary disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, and heart failure, to enable physicians to pool all the relevant risk factor information so as to arrive at a composite risk estimate. Hypertensive patients are more appropriately targeted for therapy by such risk stratification and the goal of the therapy should be to improve the multivariate risk profile.
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              Characterization of interintestinal and intraintestinal variations in human CYP3A-dependent metabolism.

              Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) metabolizes a diverse array of clinically important drugs. For some of these (e.g., cyclosporine, verapamil, midazolam), CYP3A in the intestinal mucosa contributes to their extensive and variable first-pass extraction. To further characterize this phenomenon, we measured CYP3A content and catalytic activity toward the probe substrate midazolam in mucosa isolated from duodenal, jejunal and ileal sections of 20 human donor intestines. For comparison, the same measurements were performed for 20 human donor livers, eight of which were obtained from the same donors as eight of the intestines. Excellent correlations existed between homogenate and microsomal CYP3A content for the three intestinal regions. Median microsomal CYP3A content was greatest in the duodenum and lowest in the ileum (31 vs. 17 pmol/mg of protein). With respect to midazolam 1'-hydroxylation kinetics, the median Km for each intestinal region was similar to the median hepatic Km, approximately 4 microM. In contrast, the median Vmax decreased from liver to duodenum to jejunum to ileum (850 vs. 644 vs. 426 vs. 68 pmol/min/mg). Intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) followed a similar trend for the intestinal regions; median duodenal intrinsic clearance was comparable to hepatic intrinsic clearance (157 and 200 microl/min/mg, respectively). Vmax correlated with CYP3A content for all tissues except the ileum. Duodenal and jejunal Vmax and CYP3A content varied by >30-fold among donors. Microsomes prepared from every other 1-foot section of six intestines were also analyzed for CYP3A as well as for two coenzymes. In general, CYP3A activity, CYP3A content and CYP reductase activity rose slightly from duodenum to middle jejunum and then declined to distal jejunum and ileum. Cytochrome b5 content and cytochrome b5 reductase activity varied little throughout the intestinal tract. Regional intrinsic midazolam 1'-hydroxylation clearance was greatest for the jejunum, followed by the duodenum and ileum (144, 50 and 19 ml/min, respectively). Collectively, these results demonstrate that the upper small intestine serves as the major site for intestinal CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolism and provides a rationale for interindividual differences in oral bioavailability for some CYP3A substrates.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                16 March 2017
                : 11
                : 811-826
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Aston School of Pharmacy, Aston University, Birmingham
                [2 ]Viridian Pharma Ltd, Newport, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Afzal R Mohammed, Aston School of Pharmacy, Main Building, Aston University, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK, B4 7ET, UK, Tel +44 121 204 4183, Email a.u.r.mohammed@ 123456aston.ac.uk
                Article
                dddt-11-811
                10.2147/DDDT.S126035
                5358997
                © 2017 Dennison et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Original Research

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