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      Oxidative stability of soybean oil added of purple onion (Allium cepa L.) peel extract during accelerated storage conditions

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      Food Control
      Elsevier BV

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          Onions: a source of unique dietary flavonoids.

          Onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.) are among the richest sources of dietary flavonoids and contribute to a large extent to the overall intake of flavonoids. This review includes a compilation of the existing qualitative and quantitative information about flavonoids reported to occur in onion bulbs, including NMR spectroscopic evidence used for structural characterization. In addition, a summary is given to index onion cultivars according to their content of flavonoids measured as quercetin. Only compounds belonging to the flavonols, the anthocyanins, and the dihydroflavonols have been reported to occur in onion bulbs. Yellow onions contain 270-1187 mg of flavonols per kilogram of fresh weight (FW), whereas red onions contain 415-1917 mg of flavonols per kilogram of FW. Flavonols are the predominant pigments of onions. At least 25 different flavonols have been characterized, and quercetin derivatives are the most important ones in all onion cultivars. Their glycosyl moieties are almost exclusively glucose, which is mainly attached to the 4', 3, and/or 7-positions of the aglycones. Quercetin 4'-glucoside and quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside are in most cases reported as the main flavonols in recent literature. Analogous derivatives of kaempferol and isorhamnetin have been identified as minor pigments. Recent reports indicate that the outer dry layers of onion bulbs contain oligomeric structures of quercetin in addition to condensation products of quercetin and protocatechuic acid. The anthocyanins of red onions are mainly cyanidin glucosides acylated with malonic acid or nonacylated. Some of these pigments facilitate unique structural features like 4'-glycosylation and unusual substitution patterns of sugar moieties. Altogether at least 25 different anthocyanins have been reported from red onions, including two novel 5-carboxypyranocyanidin-derivatives. The quantitative content of anthocyanins in some red onion cultivars has been reported to be approximately 10% of the total flavonoid content or 39-240 mg kg (-1) FW. The dihydroflavonol taxifolin and its 3-, 7-, and 4'-glucosides have been identified in onions. Although the structural diversity of dihydroflavonols characterized from onions is restricted compared with the wide structural assortment of flavonols and anthocyanins identified, they may occur at high concentrations in some cultivars. From bulbs of the cultivar "Tropea", 5.9 mg of taxifolin 7-glucoside and 98.1 mg of taxifolin have been isolated per kilogram of FW.
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            Antioxidative flavonoid quercetin: implication of its intestinal absorption and metabolism.

            Quercetin is a typical flavonoid ubiquitously present in fruits and vegetables, and its antioxidant effect is implied to be helpful for human health. The bioavailability of quercetin glycosides should be clarified, because dietary quercetin is mostly present as its glycoside form. Although quercetin glycosides are subject to deglycosidation by enterobacteria for the absorption at large intestine, small intestine acts as an effective absorption site for glucose-bound glycosides (quercertin glucosides). This is because small intestinal cells possess a glucoside-hydrolyzing activity and their glucose transport system is capable of participating in the glucoside absorption. A study using a cultured cell model for intestinal absorption explains that the hydrolysis of the glucosides accelerates their absorption in the small intestine. Small intestine is also recognized as the site for metabolic conversion of quercetin and other flavonoids as it possesses enzymatic activity of glucuronidation and sulfation. Modulation of the intestinal absorption and metabolism may be beneficial for regulating the biological effects of dietary quercetin.
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              Antioxidant activity of flavonoids and reactivity with peroxy radical

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Food Control
                Food Control
                Elsevier BV
                09567135
                September 2021
                September 2021
                : 127
                : 108130
                Article
                10.1016/j.foodcont.2021.108130
                1591ecf6-ba2b-4fb7-8077-743593a76b37
                © 2021

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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