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      In vitro inhibitory activities of magnolol against Candida spp.

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          Abstract

          Candida spp. cause various infections involving the skin, mucosa, deep tissues, and even life-threatening candidemia. They are regarded as an important pathogen of nosocomial bloodstream infection, with a high mortality rate. As a result of prolonged exposure to azoles, the therapeutic failure associated with azoles resistance has become a serious challenge in clinical situations. Therefore, novel, alternative antifungals are required urgently. In the present study, the CLSI M-27A broth microdilution method and the 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay were used to evaluate the antifungal effects of magnolol against various standard Candida strains in planktonic mode and biofilm formation, respectively. The antifungal activity of magnolol was demonstrated in planktonic C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species, especially fluconazole-resistant Candida krusei, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 10 to 40 μg/mL. The BMIC 90 (minimum concentration with 90% Candida biofilm inhibited) values of magnolol ranged from 20 to 160 μg/mL, whereas the BMIC 90 values of fluconazole were more than 128 μg/mL. As an alternative and broad-spectrum antifungal agent, magnolol might be of benefit to the treatment of refractory Candida infection.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Mechanisms of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents.

           T Mah,  G O’Toole (2000)
          Biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface. It has become clear that biofilm-grown cells express properties distinct from planktonic cells, one of which is an increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. Recent work has indicated that slow growth and/or induction of an rpoS-mediated stress response could contribute to biocide resistance. The physical and/or chemical structure of exopolysaccharides or other aspects of biofilm architecture could also confer resistance by exclusion of biocides from the bacterial community. Finally, biofilm-grown bacteria might develop a biofilm-specific biocide-resistant phenotype. Owing to the heterogeneous nature of the biofilm, it is likely that there are multiple resistance mechanisms at work within a single community. Recent research has begun to shed light on how and why surface-attached microbial communities develop resistance to antimicrobial agents.
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            Antifungal agents: mechanisms of action

            Clinical needs for novel antifungal agents have altered steadily with the rise and fall of AIDS-related mycoses, and the change in spectrum of fatal disseminated fungal infections that has accompanied changes in therapeutic immunosuppressive therapies. The search for new molecular targets for antifungals has generated considerable research using modern genomic approaches, so far without generating new agents for clinical use. Meanwhile, six new antifungal agents have just reached, or are approaching, the clinic. Three are new triazoles, with extremely broad antifungal spectra, and three are echinocandins, which inhibit synthesis of fungal cell wall polysaccharides--a new mode of action. In addition, the sordarins represent a novel class of agents that inhibit fungal protein synthesis. This review describes the targets and mechanisms of action of all classes of antifungal agents in clinical use or with clinical potential.
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              Clinical, cellular, and molecular factors that contribute to antifungal drug resistance.

              In the past decade, the frequency of diagnosed fungal infections has risen sharply due to several factors, including the increase in the number of immunosuppressed patients resulting from the AIDS epidemic and treatments during and after organ and bone marrow transplants. Linked with the increase in fungal infections is a recent increase in the frequency with which these infections are recalcitrant to standard antifungal therapy. This review summarizes the factors that contribute to antifungal drug resistance on three levels: (i) clinical factors that result in the inability to successfully treat refractory disease; (ii) cellular factors associated with a resistant fungal strain; and (iii) molecular factors that are ultimately responsible for the resistance phenotype in the cell. Many of the clinical factors that contribute to resistance are associated with the immune status of the patient, with the pharmacology of the drugs, or with the degree or type of fungal infection present. At a cellular level, antifungal drug resistance can be the result of replacement of a susceptible strain with a more resistant strain or species or the alteration of an endogenous strain (by mutation or gene expression) to a resistant phenotype. The molecular mechanisms of resistance that have been identified to date in Candida albicans include overexpression of two types of efflux pumps, overexpression or mutation of the target enzyme, and alteration of other enzymes in the same biosynthetic pathway as the target enzyme. Since the study of antifungal drug resistance is relatively new, other factors that may also contribute to resistance are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                06 September 2017
                : 11
                : 2653-2661
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology
                [2 ]Department of Stomatology, Peking University International Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xiaosong Liu, Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 10 8219 5349, Email liusarah@ 123456126.com
                Article
                dddt-11-2653
                10.2147/DDDT.S146529
                5593404
                © 2017 Zhou et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                biofilm, candida spp., inhibition, magnolol

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