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      Gender differences in factors associated with smartphone addiction: a cross-sectional study among medical college students

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          Abstract

          Background

          Smartphones are becoming increasingly indispensable in everyday life for most undergraduates in China, and this has been associated with problematic use or addiction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of smartphone addiction and the associated factors in male and female undergraduates.

          Methods

          This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 and included 1441 undergraduate students at Wannan Medical College, China. The Smartphone Addiction Scale short version (SAS-SV) was used to assess smartphone addiction among the students, using accepted cut-offs. Participants’ demographic, smartphone usage, and psycho-behavioral data were collected. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to seek associations between smartphone addiction and independent variables among the males and females, separately.

          Results

          The prevalence of smartphone addiction among participants was 29.8% (30.3% in males and 29.3% in females). Factors associated with smartphone addiction in male students were use of game apps, anxiety, and poor sleep quality. Significant factors for female undergraduates were use of multimedia applications, use of social networking services, depression, anxiety, and poor sleep quality.

          Conclusions

          Smartphone addiction was common among the medical college students investigated. This study identified associations between smartphone usage, psycho-behavioral factors, and smartphone addiction, and the associations differed between males and females. These results suggest the need for interventions to reduce smartphone addiction among undergraduate students.

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          Most cited references48

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          The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research

          Despite the prevalence of sleep complaints among psychiatric patients, few questionnaires have been specifically designed to measure sleep quality in clinical populations. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a self-rated questionnaire which assesses sleep quality and disturbances over a 1-month time interval. Nineteen individual items generate seven "component" scores: subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction. The sum of scores for these seven components yields one global score. Clinical and clinimetric properties of the PSQI were assessed over an 18-month period with "good" sleepers (healthy subjects, n = 52) and "poor" sleepers (depressed patients, n = 54; sleep-disorder patients, n = 62). Acceptable measures of internal homogeneity, consistency (test-retest reliability), and validity were obtained. A global PSQI score greater than 5 yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.6% and specificity of 86.5% (kappa = 0.75, p less than 0.001) in distinguishing good and poor sleepers. The clinimetric and clinical properties of the PSQI suggest its utility both in psychiatric clinical practice and research activities.
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            The CES-D Scale: A Self-Report Depression Scale for Research in the General Population

            L Radloff (1977)
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              Applied Logistic Regression

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                chenbf1980@163.com
                44743372@qq.com
                dss522@126.com
                569759997@qq.com
                1404466145@qq.com
                +86 5533932059 , wyf@wnmc.edu.cn
                Journal
                BMC Psychiatry
                BMC Psychiatry
                BMC Psychiatry
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-244X
                10 October 2017
                10 October 2017
                2017
                : 17
                : 341
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.443626.1, School of Public Health, Wannan Medical College, ; 22 West wenchang Road, Wuhu, Anhui Province 241002 China
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1294-8184
                Article
                1503
                10.1186/s12888-017-1503-z
                5634822
                29017482
                15967d45-8d5b-4e1a-8e7c-3e471afaeb67
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 23 March 2017
                : 2 October 2017
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                smartphone addiction,problematic smartphone use,sleep quality,depression,anxiety

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