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      Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Activity of SnO 2–ZnO Quantum Dots Anchored on g-C 3N 4 Nanosheets for Photocatalytic Pollutant Degradation and H 2 Production


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          A zero-dimensional/two-dimensional heterostructure consists of binary SnO 2–ZnO quantum dots (QDs) deposited on the surface of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3N 4) nanosheets. The so-called SnO 2–ZnO QDs/g-C 3N 4 hybrid was successfully synthesized via an in situ co-pyrolysis approach to achieve efficient photoactivity for the degradation of pollutants and production of hydrogen (H 2) under visible-light irradiation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show the close contacts between SnO 2–ZnO QDs with the g-C 3N 4 in the ternary SnO 2–ZnO QDs/g-C 3N 4 hybrid. The optimized hybrid shows excellent photocatalytic efficiency, achieving 99% rhodamine B dye degradation in 60 min under visible-light irradiation. The enriched charge-carrier separation and transportation in the SnO 2–ZnO QDs/g-C 3N 4 hybrid was determined based on electrochemical impedance and photocurrent analyses. This remarkable photoactivity is ascribed to the “smart” heterostructure, which yields numerous benefits, such as visible-light-driven fast electron and hole transfer, due to the strong interaction between the SnO 2–ZnO QDs with the g-C 3N 4 matrix. In addition, the SnO 2–ZnO QDs/g-C 3N 4 hybrid demonstrated a high rate of hydrogen production (13 673.61 μmol g –1), which is 1.06 and 2.27 times higher than that of the binary ZnO/g-C 3N 4 hybrid (12 785.54 μmol g –1) and pristine g-C 3N 4 photocatalyst (6017.72 μmol g –1). The synergistic effect of increased visible absorption and diminished recombination results in enhanced performance of the as-synthesized tin oxide- and zinc oxide-modified g-C 3N 4. We conclude that the present ternary SnO 2–ZnO QDs/g-C 3N 4 hybrid is a promising electrode material for H 2 production and photoelectrochemical cells.

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          g-C3N4-Based Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Generation.

          Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)-based photocatalysts have attracted dramatically increasing interest in the area of visible-light-induced photocatalytic hydrogen generation due to the unique electronic band structure and high thermal and chemical stability of g-C3N4. This Perspective summarizes the recent significant advances on designing high-performance g-C3N4-based photocatalysts for hydrogen generation under visible-light irradiation. The rational strategies such as nanostructure design, band gap engineering, dye sensitization, and heterojunction construction are described. Finally, this Perspective highlights the ongoing challenges and opportunities for the future development of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts in the exciting research area.
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            Overall water splitting by Pt/g-C 3 N 4 photocatalysts without using sacrificial agents † †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Characterization and experimental detail. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc04572j

            Direct splitting of pure water into H2 and O2 in a stoichiometric molar ratio of 2 : 1 by conjugated polymers via a 4-electron pathway was established for the first time, as demonstrated here using a g-C3N4 polymer and redox co-catalysts of Pt and Co species.
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              Review on the criteria anticipated for the fabrication of highly efficient ZnO-based visible-light-driven photocatalysts


                Author and article information

                ACS Omega
                ACS Omega
                ACS Omega
                American Chemical Society
                10 July 2018
                31 July 2018
                : 3
                : 7
                : 7587-7602
                []School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University , 214-1 Dae-dong, Gyeongsan 712-749, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea
                []School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) , Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]E-mail: drprabu@ 123456ynu.ac.kr . Mobile: +82-(0)53-810-2452. Fax: +82-53-810-4627 (S.V.P.V.).
                [* ]E-mail: jshim@ 123456ynu.ac.kr (J.S.).
                Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society

                This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article or any adaptations for non-commercial purposes.

                : 13 March 2018
                : 05 June 2018
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