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      Propolis: a new frontier for wound healing?

      review-article
      ,
      Burns & Trauma
      BioMed Central
      Propolis, Wound healing, Tissue regeneration

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          Abstract

          Propolis is a resin produced by honeybees by mixing wax, pollen, salivary secretions, and collected natural resins.

          The precise composition of propolis varies with the source, and over 300 chemical components belonging to the flavonoids, terpenes, and phenolic acids have been identified in propolis. Moreover, its chemical composition is subjected to the geographical location, botanical origin, and bee species.

          Propolis and its compounds have been the focus of many works due to their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity; however, it is now recognized that propolis also possesses regenerative properties.

          There is an increasing interest in the healing potential of natural products, considering the availability and low cost of these products. Propolis contains a huge number of compounds that explicate some biological effects that speeds up the healing process and is widely used in folk remedies.

          This review aims to condense the results on the mechanism of activity of propolis and its compounds.

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          Recent Advances in the Chemical Composition of Propolis

          Propolis is a honeybee product with broad clinical applications. Current literature describes that propolis is collected from plant resins. From a systematic database search, 241 compounds were identified in propolis for the first time between 2000 and 2012; and they belong to such diverse chemical classes as flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, terpenenes, stilbenes, lignans, coumarins, and their prenylated derivatives, showing a pattern consistent with around 300 previously reported compounds. The chemical characteristics of propolis are linked to the diversity of geographical location, plant sources and bee species.
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            Chemical diversity of propolis and the problem of standardization.

            Chemical variability of propolis is discussed with respect to the problem of standardization. Several chemical types of propolis are formulated, based on their plant source. Reliable criteria for chemical standardization of different propolis types are needed but such generally accepted criteria do not yet exist. The chemical profile of "poplar" propolis, typical for the temperate zone, can be characterized by the following parameters: total flavone and flavonol content, total flavanone and dihydroflavonol content, and total phenolics content. These parameters correlate better with the biological activity and are more informative that the quantification of individual components. There is still a lot of work to be done to achieve standardization of other propolis types. Working with standardized material will allow scientists to connect a particular chemical propolis type to a specific type of biological activity and formulate recommendations for mainstream practitioners.
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              Propolis, an old remedy used in modern medicine.

              Propolis is one of the few natural remedies that has maintained its popularity over a long period of time. The pharmacologically active molecules in the propolis are flavonoids and phenolic acids and their esters. These components have multiple effects on bacteria, fungi and viruses. In addition, propolis and its components have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Moreover, propolis has been shown to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. However, clinical studies to substantiate these claims are required.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +39-0131-360260 , simona.martinotti@uniupo.it
                ranzato@uniupo.it
                Journal
                Burns Trauma
                Burns Trauma
                Burns & Trauma
                BioMed Central (London )
                2321-3868
                2321-3876
                22 July 2015
                22 July 2015
                2015
                : 3
                : 9
                Affiliations
                DiSIT—Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, University of Piemonte Orientale, “Amedeo Avogadro”, viale Teresa Michel, 11-15121 Alessandria, Italy
                Article
                10
                10.1186/s41038-015-0010-z
                4964312
                27574655
                15ad5930-77f0-4fe2-9e3b-ddaae5e30c0b
                © The Author(s) 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 16 March 2015
                : 12 June 2015
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

                propolis,wound healing,tissue regeneration
                propolis, wound healing, tissue regeneration

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