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      Interference of Mitral Valve Stenosis with Left Ventricular Diastole and Left Atrial Appendage Flow

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          Abstract

          Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been reported as an independent risk factor of systemic thromboembolism. Almost half of the left atrial thrombi are located in the left atrial appendage (LAA). LAA function, reflected by LAA flow, thus has an influence on the potential of distal embolic complications. To identify factors other than atrial contraction that influence LAA flow during AF, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic studies were performed on 130 patients. Seventy patients with nonrheumatic AF were divided into two groups with higher peak LAA outflow velocity (group 1) and lower peak LAA outflow velocity (group 2) at the ventricular systolic phase. Sixty patients with rheumatic AF were classified as group 3. Group 1 had a higher peak LAA outflow velocity than group 2 at both the ventricular systolic and diastolic phases. Group 2 had a higher peak LAA outflow at the ventricular diastolic phase than group 3 (18.9 ± 8.0 vs. 11.8 ± 7.5 cm/s, p < 0.001), whereas there was no significant difference in the peak LAA outflow at the ventricular systolic phase between the two groups (9.6 ± 4.0 vs. 10.8 ± 6.8 cm/s, p = NS). Group 3 was subdivided according to mitral valve area. Patients with severe mitral stenosis (mitral valve area < 1 cm<sup>2</sup>) had a significantly lower diastolic augmentation of LAA outflow velocity (difference of LAA outflow velocity between ventricle systole and diastole) than patients with mild to moderate stenosis (0.5 ± 3.2 vs. 2.6 ± 4.9 cm/s, p < 0.05). In conclusion, patients with rheumatic AF, especially those with severe mitral stenosis, have a lower diastolic augmentation of LAA outflow velocity. The lower diastolic augmentation of the LAA outflow velocity at the ventricular diastolic phase might result from interference with the suction effect of the left ventricular diastole by the stenotic mitral valve.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          CRD
          Cardiology
          10.1159/issn.0008-6312
          Cardiology
          S. Karger AG
          0008-6312
          1421-9751
          1996
          1996
          19 November 2008
          : 87
          : 6
          : 537-544
          Affiliations
          Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
          Article
          177151 Cardiology 1996;87:537–544
          10.1159/000177151
          8904683
          © 1996 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 8
          Categories
          Noninvasive and Diagnostic Cardiology

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