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      Cadmium Nephrotoxicity Assessed in Isolated Rat Glomeruli and Cultured Mesangial Cells: Evidence for Contraction of Glomerular Cells

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          Cadmium (Cd), an important pollutant, causes severe damage at the renal tubular level. Numerous previous studies have focused upon Cd tubular nephrotoxicity. The present study of Cd-induced glomerular damage examined the vasoactive effect of Cd in freshly isolated glomeruli and mesangial cells. Glomeruli were isolated by passing rat renal cortex pulp through calibrated sieves followed by culture for outgrowth of cells. Quantitative evaluation of glomerular and cellular contractions was performed by morphometric measurement of the area with an automatized image analyzer following different incubation times with Hanks’ balanced salt solution or Cd<sup>2+</sup>. Each glomerulus or mesangial cell served as its own control. Cd lethality was measured with microassay methods (neutral red, MTT uptake, and lactate dehydrogenase release), allowing the determination of an IC<sub>50</sub>. This ranged from 35 to 60 μ M. CdCl<sub>2</sub> induced a time-dependent contractile effect on isolated glomeruli; planar surface area decreases were 6.9% (1 μ M), 7.5% (0.1 μ M), and 7% (0.01 μ M). The decrease started as soon as Cd was in contact with glomeruli and ended 40 min later: T5 (2%), T10 (3.5%), T20 (4.2%), T30 (6.3%), T40 (7%). Cell size reduction was 19% (1 μ M), 14% (0.1 μ M), and 18% (0.01 μ M) and was also time-dependent. To confirm that contractile events occurred during the cell shape changes, examination of the mesangial α-actin network was performed concurrently. These results indicate that Cd contracts glomerular structures. This may, in part, explain the reduction in glomerular filtration seen in Cd nephrotoxicity.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Toxicity determined in vitro by morphological alterations and neutral red absorption

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            Calcium-independent effects of cadmium on actin assembly in mesangial and vascular smooth muscle cells

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              On the mechanism of transfer of heavy metals across cell membranes

               E.C. Foulkes (1988)

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                June 1999
                28 May 1999
                : 7
                : 3
                : 251-258
                Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire, Faculté de Pharmacie, Bordeaux, France
                20610 Exp Nephrol 1999;7:251–258
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 4, References: 35, Pages: 8
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