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      Pain after Cardiac Surgery : A Prospective Cohort Study of 1-Year Incidence and Intensity

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      Anesthesiology

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Most cited references 14

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          Chronic Pain as an Outcome of Surgery

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            Pain location, distribution, and intensity after cardiac surgery.

            To study the location, distribution, and intensity of pain in a sample of adult cardiac surgery patients during their postoperative hospital stay. In a prospective study, pain location, distribution (number of pain areas per patient), and intensity (0 to 10 numerical rating scale) were documented on the first, second, third, and seventh postoperative day (POD). Patient characteristics (age, sex, size, and body mass index) were analyzed for their impact on pain intensity. A university hospital. Two hundred consecutive adult patients who underwent median sternotomy for open heart surgery. There were 121 male and 79 female patients, with a mean (+/- SD) age of 60.9 +/- 19.2 years. The maximal pain intensity was significantly higher on POD 1 and 2 (3.7 +/- 2 and 3.9 +/- 1.9, respectively) and lower on POD 3 and 7 (3.2 +/- 1.5 and 2.6 +/- 1.8, respectively). The pain distribution did not vary significantly throughout the hospital stay, but the location did, with more shoulder pain on POD 7. Only age was found to have an impact on pain intensity, with patients < 60 years having a higher pain intensity than older patients on POD 2 (4.3 +/- 2.2 vs 3.6 +/- 2.4; p = 0.02). In this patient population, the pain intensity diminished from POD 3 onward, although its distribution did not vary significantly during the first postoperative week. Moreover, pain location changed with time, with more osteoarticular type pain at the end of the first postoperative week. Among the patients' characteristics, only younger age had an impact on pain intensity, with a higher value on POD 2.
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              A prospective randomized study of the potential benefits of thoracic epidural anesthesia and analgesia in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

              We performed an open, prospective, randomized, controlled study of the incidence of major organ complications in 420 patients undergoing routine coronary artery bypass graft surgery with or without thoracic epidural anesthesia and analgesia (TEA). All patients received a standardized general anesthetic. Group TEA received TEA for 96 h. Group GA (general anesthesia) received narcotic analgesia for 72 h. Both groups received supplementary oral analgesia. Twelve patients were excluded-eight in Group TEA and four in Group GA-because of incomplete data collection. New supraventricular arrhythmias occurred in 21 of 206 patients (10.2%) in Group TEA compared with 45 of 202 patients (22.3%) in Group GA (P = 0.0012). Pulmonary function (maximal inspiratory lung volume) was better in Group TEA in a subset of 93 patients (P < 0.0001). Extubation was achieved earlier (P < 0.0001) and with significantly fewer lower respiratory tract infections in Group TEA (TEA = 31 of 206, GA = 59 of 202; P = 0.0007). There were significantly fewer patients with acute confusion (GA = 11 of 202, TEA = 3 of 206; P = 0.031) and acute renal failure (GA = 14 of 202, TEA = 4 of 206; P = 0.016) in the TEA group. The incidence of stroke was insignificantly less in the TEA group (GA = 6 of 202, TEA = 2 of 206; P = 0.17). There were no neurologic complications associated with the use of TEA. We conclude that continuous TEA significantly improves the quality of recovery after coronary artery bypass graft surgery compared with conventional narcotic analgesia.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Anesthesiology
                Anesthesiology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0003-3022
                2006
                October 2006
                : 105
                : 4
                : 794-800
                Article
                10.1097/00000542-200610000-00026
                © 2006

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