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      Cold sensitivity of TRPA1 is unveiled by the prolyl hydroxylation blockade-induced sensitization to ROS

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          Abstract

          Mammalian transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a polymodal nociceptor that plays an important role in pain generation, but its role as a cold nociceptor is still controversial. Here, we propose that TRPA1 can sense noxious cold via transduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling. We show that inhibiting hydroxylation of a proline residue within the N-terminal ankyrin repeat of human TRPA1 by mutation or using a prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitor potentiates the cold sensitivity of TRPA1 in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Inhibiting PHD in mice triggers mouse TRPA1 sensitization sufficiently to sense cold-evoked ROS, which causes cold hypersensitivity. Furthermore, this phenomenon underlies the acute cold hypersensitivity induced by the chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin or its metabolite oxalate. Thus, our findings provide evidence that blocking prolyl hydroxylation reveals TRPA1 sensitization to ROS, which enables TRPA1 to convert ROS signalling into cold sensitivity.

          Abstract

          The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a cation channel that is involved in nociceptive pain sensing. Here, the authors show that hydroxylation of a proline in the N terminus of TRPA1 renders it sensitive to reactive oxygen species resulting from noxious cold.

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          Most cited references 46

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          TRPA1 mediates the inflammatory actions of environmental irritants and proalgesic agents.

          TRPA1 is an excitatory ion channel targeted by pungent irritants from mustard and garlic. TRPA1 has been proposed to function in diverse sensory processes, including thermal (cold) nociception, hearing, and inflammatory pain. Using TRPA1-deficient mice, we now show that this channel is the sole target through which mustard oil and garlic activate primary afferent nociceptors to produce inflammatory pain. TRPA1 is also targeted by environmental irritants, such as acrolein, that account for toxic and inflammatory actions of tear gas, vehicle exhaust, and metabolic byproducts of chemotherapeutic agents. TRPA1-deficient mice display normal cold sensitivity and unimpaired auditory function, suggesting that this channel is not required for the initial detection of noxious cold or sound. However, TRPA1-deficient mice exhibit pronounced deficits in bradykinin-evoked nociceptor excitation and pain hypersensitivity. Thus, TRPA1 is an important component of the transduction machinery through which environmental irritants and endogenous proalgesic agents depolarize nociceptors to elicit inflammatory pain.
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            Noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 is activated by pungent compounds and bradykinin.

            Six members of the mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels respond to varied temperature thresholds. The natural compounds capsaicin and menthol activate noxious heat-sensitive TRPV1 and cold-sensitive TRPM8, respectively. The burning and cooling perception of capsaicin and menthol demonstrate that these ion channels mediate thermosensation. We show that, in addition to noxious cold, pungent natural compounds present in cinnamon oil, wintergreen oil, clove oil, mustard oil, and ginger all activate TRPA1 (ANKTM1). Bradykinin, an inflammatory peptide acting through its G protein-coupled receptor, also activates TRPA1. We further show that phospholipase C is an important signaling component for TRPA1 activation. Cinnamaldehyde, the most specific TRPA1 activator, excites a subset of sensory neurons highly enriched in cold-sensitive neurons and elicits nociceptive behavior in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TRPA1 activation elicits a painful sensation and provide a potential molecular model for why noxious cold can paradoxically be perceived as burning pain.
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              The menthol receptor TRPM8 is the principal detector of environmental cold.

              Sensory nerve fibres can detect changes in temperature over a remarkably wide range, a process that has been proposed to involve direct activation of thermosensitive excitatory transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. One such channel--TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) or cold and menthol receptor 1 (CMR1)--is activated by chemical cooling agents (such as menthol) or when ambient temperatures drop below approximately 26 degrees C, suggesting that it mediates the detection of cold thermal stimuli by primary afferent sensory neurons. However, some studies have questioned the contribution of TRPM8 to cold detection or proposed that other excitatory or inhibitory channels are more critical to this sensory modality in vivo. Here we show that cultured sensory neurons and intact sensory nerve fibres from TRPM8-deficient mice exhibit profoundly diminished responses to cold. These animals also show clear behavioural deficits in their ability to discriminate between cold and warm surfaces, or to respond to evaporative cooling. At the same time, TRPM8 mutant mice are not completely insensitive to cold as they avoid contact with surfaces below 10 degrees C, albeit with reduced efficiency. Thus, our findings demonstrate an essential and predominant role for TRPM8 in thermosensation over a wide range of cold temperatures, validating the hypothesis that TRP channels are the principal sensors of thermal stimuli in the peripheral nervous system.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group
                2041-1723
                15 September 2016
                2016
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University , 46-29 Yoshida-Shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku 606-8501, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Enginnering, Kyoto University , Katsura Campus, Nishikyo-ku 615-8510, Japan
                [3 ]Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka University , Nanakuma 7-45-1, Jonan-ku 814-0180, Japan
                [4 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Kyoto University Hospital , 54 Shogoin-Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku 606-8507, Japan
                Author notes
                Article
                ncomms12840
                10.1038/ncomms12840
                5027619
                27628562
                Copyright © 2016, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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