Published data on the association between paraoxonase1 (PON1) polymorphisms and coronary heart disease (CHD) have yielded controversial results. The objective of this study was to determine the possible relationship between the two human PON1 amino acid variants, the Leu55Met and the Gln192Arg polymorphism, and the risk of CHD in a community-dwelling cohort of European ancestry. PON1 genotypes of 152 women and 151 men out of 1,998 randomly selected individuals aged 44–75 years were determined by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction enzyme digestion. Study participants underwent cardiological examination including a structured clinical interview, resting ECG, exercise testing and echocardiography. The diagnosis of CHD was based on history and/or appropriate findings during cardiac examination. Evidence for CHD was found in 43 (14.2%) study participants. The Leu/Leu (LL), Leu/Met (LM) and Met/Met (MM) genotypes at position 55 were noted in 131 (43.2%), 128 (42.2%) and 44 (14.5%) subjects; the Gln/Gln (QQ), Gln/Arg (QR) and Arg/Arg (RR) genotypes at codon 192 occurred in 167 (55.1%), 118 (38.9%) and 18 (5.9%) individuals, respectively. Homozygosity for the 55L-allele was significantly associated with CHD (p = 0.02), while the Gln192Arg polymorphism had no effect (p = 0.16). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated age (odds ratio 1.06/year), smoking (odds ratio 2.86), HDL cholesterol (odds ratio 0.94/mg/dl) and the paraoxonase LL genotype (odds ratio 2.25) to be significant predictors of CHD. These data suggest that the paraoxonase LL genotype at position 55 may present a risk factor for CHD.