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      Efficient Transmission and Characterization of Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease Strains in Bank Voles

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          Abstract

          Transmission of prions between species is limited by the “species barrier,” which hampers a full characterization of human prion strains in the mouse model. We report that the efficiency of primary transmission of prions from Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease patients to a wild rodent species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), is comparable to that reported in transgenic mice carrying human prion protein, in spite of a low prion protein–sequence homology between man and vole. Voles infected with sporadic and genetic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease isolates show strain-specific patterns of spongiform degeneration and pathological prion protein–deposition, and accumulate protease-resistant prion protein with biochemical properties similar to the human counterpart. Adaptation of genetic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease isolates to voles shows little or no evidence of a transmission barrier, in contrast to the striking barriers observed during transmission of mouse, hamster, and sheep prions to voles. Our results imply that in voles there is no clear relationship between the degree of homology of the prion protein of the donor and recipient species and susceptibility, consistent with the view that the prion strain gives a major contribution to the species barrier. The vole is therefore a valuable model to study human prion diversity and, being susceptible to a range of animal prions, represents a unique tool for comparing isolates from different species.

          Synopsis

          Prions are unconventional infectious agents that cause fatal neurodegenerative diseases. The transmission of prions between species is considered a rare event because it is limited by the “species barrier.” Nevertheless, in the past 10 y, more than 180 people worldwide died with variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD) following consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)–contaminated food. The vCJD crisis highlights the need for experimental approaches that are able to characterize human prions and to estimate the risk of animal prions for man. The authors used a new animal model, the bank vole, which appears to address these issues. They observed that these rodents are highly susceptible to sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD) and genetic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (gCJD), as well as to several animal prions. Transmission to voles indicates that sCJD is caused by at least two distinct prion strains. Surprisingly, voles challenged with gCJD isolates do not show a species barrier, while prions from closely related rodent species encounter a clear barrier in transmitting to voles. Inoculation of voles with scrapie-related and BSE-related strains from several species suggests that the prion strain, and not the donor species, is the major determinant of prion transmissibility between different species. The authors conclude that the vole model is a valuable tool for comparing animal and human prions.

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          Most cited references40

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          Classification of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease based on molecular and phenotypic analysis of 300 subjects.

          Phenotypic heterogeneity in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is well documented, but there is not yet a systematic classification of the disease variants. In a previous study, we showed that the polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), and two types of protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(Sc)) with distinct physicochemical properties, are major determinants of these variants. To define the full spectrum of variants, we have examined a series of 300 sCJD patients. Clinical features, PRNP genotype, and PrP(Sc) properties were determined in all subjects. In 187, we also studied neuropathological features and immunohistochemical pattern of PrP(Sc) deposition. Seventy percent of subjects showed the classic CJD phenotype, PrP(Sc) type 1, and at least one methionine allele at codon 129; 25% of cases displayed the ataxic and kuru-plaque variants, associated to PrP(Sc) type 2, and valine homozygosity or heterozygosity at codon 129, respectively. Two additional variants, which included a thalamic form of CJD and a phenotype characterized by prominent dementia and cortical pathology, were linked to PrP(Sc) type 2 and methionine homozygosity. Finally, a rare phenotype characterized by progressive dementia was linked to PrP(Sc) type 1 and valine homozygosity. The present data demonstrate the existence of six phenotypic variants of sCJD. The physicochemical properties of PrP(Sc) in conjunction with the PRNP codon 129 genotype largely determine this phenotypic variability, and allow a molecular classification of the disease variants.
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            Transgenetic studies implicate interactions between homologous PrP isoforms in scrapie prion replication.

            Transgenic (Tg) mice expressing both Syrian hamster (Ha) and mouse (Mo) prion protein (PrP) genes were used to probe the mechanism of scrapie prion replication. Four Tg lines expressing HaPrP exhibited distinct incubation times ranging from 48 to 277 days, which correlated inversely with HaPrP mRNA and HaPrPC. Bioassays of Tg brain extracts showed that the prion inoculum dictates which prions are synthesized de novo. Tg mice inoculated with Ha prions had approximately 10(9) ID50 units of Ha prions per gram of brain and less than 10 units of Mo prions. Conversely, Tg mice inoculated with Mo prions synthesized Mo prions but not Ha prions. Similarly, Tg mice inoculated with Ha prions exhibited neuropathologic changes characteristic of hamsters with scrapie, while Mo prions produced changes similar to those in non-Tg mice. Our results argue that species specificity of scrapie prions resides in the PrP sequence and prion synthesis is initiated by a species-specific interaction between PrPSc in the inoculum and homologous PrPC.
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              Human spongiform encephalopathy: the National Institutes of Health series of 300 cases of experimentally transmitted disease.

              We present a synthesis of clinical, neuropathological, and biological details of the National Institutes of Health series of 300 experimentally transmitted cases of spongiform encephalopathy from among more than 1,000 cases of various neurological disorders inoculated into nonhuman primates during the past 30 years. The series comprises 278 subjects with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, of whom 234 had sporadic, 36 familial, and 8 iatrogenic disease; 18 patients with kuru; and 4 patients with Gerstmann-Strüssler-Scheinker syndrome. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, numerically by far the most important representative, showed an average age at onset of 60 years, with the frequent early appearance of cerebellar and visual/oculomotor signs, and a broad spectrum of clinical features during the subsequent course of illness, which was usually fatal in less than 6 months. Characteristic spongiform neuropathology was present in all but 2 subjects. Microscopically visible kuru-type amyloid plaques were found in 5% of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 75% of those with kuru, and 100% of those with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome; brain biopsy was diagnostic in 95% of cases later confirmed at autopsy, and proteinase-resistant amyloid protein was identified in Western blots of brain extracts from 88% of tested subjects. Experimental transmission rates were highest for iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (100%), kuru (95%), and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (90%), and considerably lower for most familial forms of disease (68%). Incubation periods as well as the durations and character of illness showed great variability, even in animals receiving the same inoculum, mirroring the spectrum of clinical profiles seen in human disease. Infectivity reached average levels of nearly 10(5) median lethal doses/gm of brain tissue, but was only irregularly present (and at much lower levels) in tissues outside the brain, and, except for cerebrospinal fluid, was never detected in bodily secretions or excretions.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS Pathog
                ppat
                PLoS Pathogens
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1553-7366
                1553-7374
                February 2006
                24 February 2006
                : 2
                : 2
                : e12
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, Rome, Italy
                [2 ] Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, Rome, Italy
                [3 ] Division of Neuroanatomy and Behaviour, Institute of Anatomy and Centre for Neuroscience, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
                [4 ] Neuropathogenesis Unit, Institute for Animal Health, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
                University of Toronto, Canada
                Author notes
                * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: agrimi@ 123456iss.it
                Article
                05-PLPA-RA-0215R2 plpa-02-02-04
                10.1371/journal.ppat.0020012
                1383487
                16518470
                15d147b3-3755-4982-9eb9-33518d8527b5
                Copyright: © 2006 Nonno et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                History
                : 7 November 2005
                : 13 January 2006
                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Article
                Epidemiology - Public Health
                Infectious Diseases
                Neuroscience
                Pathology
                Genetics/Genetics of Disease
                Genetics/Disease Models
                Homo (Human)
                Mammals
                Custom metadata
                Nonno R, Di Bari MA, Cardone F, Vaccari G, Fazzi P, et al. (2006) Efficient transmission and characterization of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease strains in bank voles. PLoS Pathog 2(2): e12.

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Infectious disease & Microbiology

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